In the early 90’s the UNEP and the World Bank set out to examine the feasibility of physical and monetary accounting in the area of natural resources and the environment and to develop alternative macro indicators of environmentally adjusted and sustainable income and product. Simultaneously, the Statistical Division of the United Nations (UNSTAT) also developed methodologies for a System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA). Environmental accounting at organizational level aims to address the needs of organization to measure the economic efficiency of their environmental conservation and the business activities of the company as a whole (Kundu & Hauff, 2009). Environmental accounting includes environmental management accounting. In environmental management accounting, there is a particular focus on material and energy balance aspects and environmental cost information.
ENVIRONAMNTAL RESOURCES, ECONOMICS, AND POLICY The Economics of Nature Traditionally, natural resources have been identified as elements of the environment needed for the production of certain basic commodities (Sullivan and Arias 1972). An introspective look at the environment and natural resources is necessary for determining a base value, inventory, or stocking. Understanding value is instrumental for determining how to best utilize natural resources. Economists have developed several ways to estimate the present and future values of a resource or ecological service, and optimum levels of pollution control and resource use. We can begin to understand how the “nature” of economics affects environmental policy.
Companies are trying hard to establish themselves as global environmental friendly firms by different certifications like ISO 14001, etc. and also Government rules & policy off late focuses more on environmental friendly approach. In spite of few limitations of this paper, it provides some valuable managerial insights. References: http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us http://www.sciencedirect.com International Journal of Production Economics J.C. Anderson, D.W. Gerbing Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach
As a result, the effective development of green products has an essential role in creating successful environmental strategies, and to help companies and economies towards environmental sustainability (Pujariet al., 2003). George Mason University (2008), state that a company could develop g... ... middle of paper ... ...er translate these values into the purchase of green products. Chase and Smith (1992) also have point out that environmental messages in green advertisements can influence the customer perception towards EFPs. Hence, the third hypothesis of the study is: H3: There is a significant relationship between green advertising by MNCs in promoting EFPs and green purchasing intention of customers. 2.10 Conclusion Based on the literature described in this chapter, three hypotheses had been developed for testing in this research.
Cháves points out that there are three separate factors that can influences how a society makes the link between knowledge acquisition and improving environmental problems. These three factors include the broad characteristics of civic organizations and their past mobilization experience, the level of compromise within organizations about the significance of using knowledge to improve public policy, and the organizations’ capacity to conquer structural problems and take advantage of the opportunities related with changing contexts or focal events. Cháves divides the chapter into four main sections while discussing the connection between events and organizational learning. The first part of the chapter presents an overview of the relationship between acquiring knowledge and improving environmental problems. Cháves argues that organization learning is of primary importance for public policy design and is central in facilitating better environmental policy.
The general innovation theory has enlarged with the analysis of the influence of environmental policy and institutional factors, classifying the determinants of eco-innovation in three broad categories supply side, demand side, and regulation and policy (Horbach and Rennings, 2007; Horbach, 2008; Oltra and Jean, 2005). Taking these different approaches as a departure point, and analysing the factors that motivate eco-innovation in energy firms, this paper contributes to the literature by pooling together insights from the innovation literature on eco-innovation and the environmental economics literature for explaining the drivers of eco-innovation. The paper is structured as follows: in Section 2, we review the theoretical and empirical literature on eco-innovation and formulate the research hypotheses. Section 3 presents the data and explains the methodology that was applied. Section 4 presents the empirical results, while Section 5 discusses the findings and the policy implications of the
Economic and Environmental Scanning Before conducting business in another country management collects information on different macroeconomic indicators, environmental issues, legal processes, political trends, and patterns of events that may have a bearing on the company. The underlying assumption is that the present pace of events determines the path of future developments. It is, therefore, advised that a company conducts an environmental scan to assess the overall attraction of the target environment in terms of potential benefits, costs, and risks. The focus of this paper is to compare the United States data and Zambia in critical areas of the global environment. Definitive areas discussed range from rates of unemployment and political risk.
This is often done by internalising environmental externalities into market prices. The design of these price-targeted taxes aims to reflect the cost of the environmental harm through the price increase of a good or activity. By doing so, it aims to ensure that prices faced by producers and consumers reflect the environmental cost of their actions in hopes of limiting environmental pressure and towards a more responsible use of natural resources. In addition, internalising externalities into market prices directly addresses the market failure that causes markets to ignore environmental impacts. In many cases, environment taxes could be divided into four broad categories – energy taxes, transport taxes, pollution taxes and resources taxes.
I argue that attention to literacy is significant for two reasons. First, it provides one way of evaluating the differences between competing environmental philosophies. Second, it raises the important question of what kind of person is required to carry out a particular vision of environmental responsibility. By addressing the issue of education and literacy, philosophers interested in environmental ethics can help create a vision of citizens who have democratically internalized and integrated environmental values and priorities rather than having them imposed from above. Environmental ethics presents us with a plurality of different theoretical positions, from sophisticated forms of anthropocentrism to competing views of ecofeminism and social ecology to various versions of biocentrism.
The authors conclude that states and non-state actors can come together to address global environmental issues but not without obstacles. This paper is divided into three parts and underlines the key information provided in the respective chapter related to the development of environmental regimes. First, it introduces and summarizes the processes involved in the development of GERs. Second, it briefly illustrates these processes to two case studies provided by the authors; ozone depletion and climate change. Finally, the paper ends with a brief personal reaction, also based on readings from Conca and Debelko’s Institutions of Global Environmental Governance, to add perspective to the final analysis.