Biological Theories Of Criminal Behavior

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Criminal behaviours have always been a focus for psychologists. It is the responsibility for an individual genetic makeup that makes them criminal. Are we born or made a criminal?. ? Genetics, societies and the environment are accountable beyond in every criminal. Researchers mainly Cesare Lombroso stated that criminality was heritable and B.F. Skinner declared it is the development of behavioural changes called operant conditioning behind the criminalist. The main root causes for the crime factors environment such as poverty, racism and unemployment etc.
In 19th and 20th century, the Italian physician Cesare Lombroso also called as a father of modern criminology. He had studied scientifically, Italian prisoners and army personal. He …show more content…

In 1939, American criminologist Earnest Hooton disagreed with Lombroso's examinations and he extended his theory more to body types theory such as mixed eye colour, reddish hair and big tall men were most likely to become murders. William Sheldon, the American psychologist and physician, advanced the theory that equals Lombroso's idea. He suggested the psychological makeup of the humans had biological foundations. He found three different types of human body shapes which were, endomorphs, mesomorphs and ectomorph. People with Mesomorph body shapes are more likely to demonstrate criminal behaviour. He concluded that a person's body shape – if it is square and muscular - could result in a personality that would be aggressive, agitated and have more tendency to criminal behaviour (Thomas J 2-5-2008,Article History).
Modern scientific studies, criticised Lombroso's theory because he did not use of any of non-criminal control groups. His research material were deceased people with psychological or chromosomal abnormalities. 'They claim that he has not distinguished adequately between criminality and pathology'. 'Most criminal activity in Lombroso's theory was the complete result of the environmental factors such as poverty and poor …show more content…

F Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists; He has to deal with how we get to more complex sorts of behavior .He studied about the changes of behavior and discovered it is the idea of shaping, then he summarized that theory and declared to certain behaviourism that affecting in a personality that is called operant conditioning .The positive and negative reinforcement and also the punishment affecting or controlling one's character and that will lead to further consequences .This operant conditioning also called as instrumental condition can be equally affecting both human and animal behavior. Psychological reaction towards an object or an event by a person or an animal can be modified by learning. This has been wildly applied in clinically, teaching as well as the development program .
The involuntary behaviors such as, increase the heart rate and the emotional changes also may affect personality. Personality disorder have become essential in the diagnosis of each persons with antisocial behaviour. These disorder does not the first evidence for criminals. Psychological and Social changes affecting a person from lenient character to

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