Situational and environmental factors provide setting and opportunity for crime to occur. Cultural forces help us analyze the context for occurring crimes. Phenomenological determines the personal meaning that a crime holds for the offender. Different researchers use different approaches to their theories but each have something to contribute to our understanding of the critical components of development. A contribution to an individual’s development begins in the womb and continues to develop well into adulthood.
It is important, therefore, for criminologists to create an understanding to members of the society regarding the root cause of crime and what dictates the behaviour of individuals who are considered to be criminals (Tierney 2009). Criminology has often been defined as a field of study where scholars from different disciplines in the society come together to find answers to problems identified in the society. Sociological approaches, however, have influenced theoretical conclusions in criminology. That however has not limited other factors like biological factors as explained by Walsh (2000) and Wright and Boisvert (2009). Psychological theories in criminology have also determined a given level of perception developed by the society states Durrant and Ward (2012).
Later research also focused on individual trait attributes in relation to criminality, but refined the use of more scientific methods to draw their conclusions. These studies were called micro-level theories because their concern was identifying how individual characteristics are related to their involvement in crime. These theories acknowledge that societal factors interact with biological traits, which may in turn produce crime. Some of these traits include low verbal IQ, attention deficit disorder, risk seeking and poor social and problem solving skills (Cullen & Agnew, 2011). Data has suggested that to some degree crime is inherited, and that genes likely contribute to certain traits that are conducive to crime (Ellis & Walsh, 1997) Gene theory suggest that some genes could evolve that predispose an individual to take advantage of the unselfish cooperative behavior of others (Badcock, 1986) Heart rates were also said to have a bearing on criminal dispositions.
Biological, Social ecological and psychological model theories are key to helping researchers gain deeper comprehension of criminal behaviour and ways to avert them before they become a menace to society. All these theories put forward a multitude of factors on the outlooks on crime. All these theories have valid relevancy to continuous research on criminal behaviour.
It is going to help identify whether enacting stricter laws and enforcing them helps in reducing the relate... ... middle of paper ... ... policies have to be able to effectively deal with the crime. The results of this study can be used to formulate policy in the state and in other states. The study plays an important role in understanding the nature of domestic violence, and how enforcement of stricter laws against it will affect its prevalence in the community. Works Cited Clarke, Ronald Situational Crime Prevention. New York: Sage, 2005.
Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society.
The process of inferring the personality characteristics of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts has commonly been referred to as criminal profiling. (Turvey) Criminal profiling can also be referred to as, behavioral profiling because when a profiler creates a profile they refer to the behavior of the offender. The general term criminal profiling can also be referred to as crime scene profiling, criminal personality profiling, offender profiling, psychological profiling and criminal investigative analysis. All the terms listed above are used inconsistently and interchangeably. Modern criminal profiling is owing to a diverse history grounded in the study of criminal behavior (criminology), the study of mental illness (psychology and psychiatry), and the examination of physical evidence (the forensic sciences).
This is done by slowly altering social behaviours and looking at the social upbringing and social structure people are exposed to. The Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Theory is a preventative model that also correlates with the secondary model, focusing on the large causes of criminal events and the major principles, which can be enforced to divert them (Ekblom 2010). The third stage is tertiary, dealing with offenders who have already commit crimes and deterring them from offending again through the criminal justice system. This is where community corrections come into play by offering programs for offenders and numerous sentences that can be sensibly administered to offenders with supervision (Lab 2010). In order for crime prevention and its correlating models to be effective, it’s important to understand the extent of its impact across different locations and contexts.
Some claim that some people have hidden or dormant characteristics that determine their reaction or behavior when confronted or put in particular negative conditions (Akers & Sellers, 2012). By understanding and studying these theories, together with applying them to people, psychologists and authorities can prevent criminals from committing or repeating crimes and aid in their rehabilitation. As many theories have emerged over time, they continue to be surveyed and explored, both individually and in combination in order for criminologists to develop solutions and eventually reduce the levels and types of crime. The most popular criminology theories emphasize on the individual, positivist and classical traits. This paper will explore the classical theory, which is among the earliest theories in criminology.
What makes a criminal a criminal? Can anyone become a criminal? Answering and understanding these questions is the core work of criminologists as most criminologists attempt to make sense of why people do certain things (Garland, Sparks 2000). This essay will consider the notion that any person could become a criminal and in so doing consider the initial question. This essay will outline a range of theories that attempt to describe human behavior in relation to criminal behavior given the complexities of behaviour.