The theory of behaviorism indicates a person’s behavior is a result of external stimuli and classic conditioning rather than a biological reason or internal drive. The behaviorist believes people are born with a blank slate and only develop personality as they are conditioned by external stimuli. Free will does not exist within the behaviorist theory because the external environment is what dictates an individual’s responses to situations. The key concepts of behaviorism is through reinforcement the personality is conditioned or taught to respond a particular way to the external environment. In the event a person has been conditioned to misbehave, they can be reconditioned through operant conditioning to respond differently to the external stimuli therefore causing the poor behavior to become extinct. Behaviorism indicates there is little difference in how a human or an animal is conditioned therefore a lot experimental analysis tested in behaviorism is completed on animals. The behaviorist creates an opportunity for scientific analysis of how personality is created through learning from experiences but removes the idea that each person is created especially unique through their DNA and inner spirit. A positive of the behaviorist approach is the potential for everyone to be reconditioned to be productive members of society (Friedman, Schustack, 2012).
Behaviourism is a theory of learning which suggests that all behaviours are obtained as a result of conditioning...
Chapter nine is mainly about behaviorism. Behaviorism is the theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus- response relationship. There are two things that could be observed and objectively measured, these two things are environmental stimulus and learner’s behaviors or response. Stimulus is a specific object or event that influences an individual’s learning or behavior. A response is a specific behavior that an individual exhibits. Behaviorist believe that people are born with a blank slate with no inherited tendency to behave on way or another. Over the years the environment slowly molds or conditions the slate so that it is no longer blank. Conditioning is the commonly used term by behaviorist for learning that typically involves specific environmental events leading to the acquisition of specific responses (Ellis, 2013, pg.265).
Behaviourism main theorist included Skinner, Pavlov and Thorndike who describes this theory as having a ‘stimulus and response’. Petty states, ‘learners are motivated by expected reward of some kind (such as praise or satisfied curiosity); learning will not take place without it’ (Petty, 2009:15-16). In addition, there should be immediate reinforcement otherwise this will cause a delay in learning. Another principle of behaviourism is the learning should be step by step and not all at once and by doing so the learner has successions of successes which increase their motivation that leads ‘to more complex behaviour’. Petty also states that ‘effective teachers stress key points and summarise them at the beginning and at the end of the class and, makes use of old learning in developing new learning’ (Petty, 2009:16).
Behaviourist regards all behaviour as a response to stimuli. They assume that what we do is determined by the environments we are in which provides stimuli to which we respond and the environments we have been in the past which causes us to learn to respond to the stimuli in particular ways. Behaviourist learns by responding to a certain task. Pavlov states that Behaviourism is the association or pairing of a stimulus with a response. (Classroom notes)
Regardless of any learning situations such as a school, house, and even a military or corporation setting, etc., in our real life we make the most of behaviorism as a way to instruct a certain desirable behavior, which is apparent and observable. As seen in a little vignette above, most instances where we exploit behaviorism aim largely at a behavior change and management. In a sense, behaviorist approach to teaching and learning more or less takes the form of training or discipline with having a clear goal, thus producing an intended learning outcome by conditioning the environmental events. As such, no matter what internal process is going on in human learning, the primary concern of behaviorist view of learning is with establishing the association between consequence and stimulus (i.e., S-R association mechanics).
Behaviourism involves children learning through imitation and developing language from outsider sources such as parents and the living environment around them. Behaviourism is seen as the nurture side.
Behaviorism is one of the many schools of psychology and it has one main overall focus. The main overall focus is it studies how a human behaves and is supposed to behave in order to detect human behavior discrepancies. As a behaviorist view, everything you see has a set behavior and should perform a certain, similar to robots. Watson stated that “psychology as a behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is … prediction and control” (1913, p.158).
The behaviourist theory also has substance as I believe the environment shapes us, “Central to this perspective is the role of the environment: language learning requires an environment that is rich in experience and language and that provides models
Behaviourism is where a person learns through responding to stimuli so as to optimise their own situation. This means that humans have a need to learn so by adapting to a changing environment around to be able to survive. For instance a learner who has some sensory impairment will adapt their own learning styles to accommodate for this barrier by adapting method and using experience they are able to achieve the same learning outcomes as other learners.
As a counselor I see myself following behavioral perspective which is learning and behavior described and explained in terms of stimulus-responsive relationships. One of the key components of behaviorism is that the environment influences the behavior. People’s behavior is a result of their interaction with the environment. People become conditioned and molded to respond in certain ways based on responses like feedback, praise, and rewards. Behavior is focused on observable events rather than events that occur inside a person’s head such as thoughts, feelings, and beliefs. Theorist believe that learning has not occurred unless an observable change has occurred.
Behaviourism is the study of human and animal behaviour. It was introduced by John. B. Watson, an American psychologist who insisted behaviour is a psychological reaction to environmental stimuli (Gerrig, Zimbardo, Campbell, Cumming, Wilkes, 2011). The theory is based on the idea that behaviour is conditioned. There are two types of condition, classical and operant. Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike’s conditioned reflex experiments were central to the development of behaviourism (Alan & Bhattacharya, 2002). In the 1890’s Pavlov carried out experiments on which involved conditioning, he implanted a device into the dogs to measure their salvia flow when being fed. (Collin et al., 2011). Pavlov noticed that the dogs salivated not only when they were being fed, but when they could see or smell the food. This led to Pavlov to further experimentation using conditioning (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner & Hood, 2012).
Throughout the twentieth century, behaviourism, which constitutes a school of psychology proposing that all learning arises from behavioral conditioning and is based on the belief that all responses can be measured and interpreted through reflexes conditioned by means of reward and punishment (Lefrancois, 2012), has been the subject of rigorous debate and criticism. Several researchers have argued that in recent years there has been a significant decline in the intellectual influence of behaviourism; with many even stating that it no longer has any influence or position in contemporary psychology (Evans, 1999), while others seem to debate that behaviourism continues to have an enduring influence in a wide variety of psychological disciplines