Manufacturing in Australia is a deteriorating industry, which has seen over 125,000 jobs dry up since the global financial crisis (Biddle 2013). With the decline in demand for Australian made vehicles (Biddle 2013) and a rapidly evolving global economy, car manufacturers have taken to decision to cease the production of vehicles in Australia. With the demise of an entire industry, a large percentage of skilled workers will be out of work forcing unemployment up and a loss of skills no longer required in Australia. The decision has the potential to have drastic effects on the economy, as the flow-on effects will have consequences for other industries, which heavily rely on automotive manufacturing. The state of manufacturing in Australia can be analysed using international trade theory to better determine factors, which influence this change.
Introduction This report is going to discuss why the car manufacturing industry in Australia is closing by using five forces analysis which are the barriers of entry, competitors, purchasing power of buyers, supplies and subsidies segments, and a life cycle analysis. Five forces analysis Barriers of entry To being with the barriers of entry which including strong currency and higher labor have the most significant impacts on auto making industry. In 2013, Holden would cut 12% of its workforce and has announced a three-year pay freeze agreement to the reminding workers to keep operates the manufacturing plant in South Australia (Thurlow, R. 2013). Moreover, a strong currency not only lead to less competitive on nation exportation but also increases the amount of cheaper imports from emerging market like China and Thailand caused by globalization. For instant, China which enjoys plenty of human power which strengthen its competitive of export products (Curran, E. 2013).
But in the last few years, Holden suffered losses due to strong Australian dollar which directed declining sales of large cars in Australia. Also government fund being reduced this has led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. Holden announced on 11 December 2013 that production in Australia would cease by the end of 2017 (Put Reference). The car manufacturing industry in Australia provides a useful example of the way in which employment relations are shaped by a combination of global market pressures and local responses by governments, employers and unions. (Evolving Employment relations, Waring ,Bray page number 119 para.
In other words, far cheaper imports have flooded the Australian market. Indeed, local manufactures’ lack of competitiveness has resulted in falling sales volume (Whytcross, March 2014). Thus, based on the strategic trade theory, local companies like Gm Holden, Toyota, and Ford do not have a competitive advantage. Because the main idea of the theory is that trade policies can raise the level of domestic welfare in a give
Its short term strategic objective is to lower the cost to 3800 per vehicle. In order to cut down the cost and expense, lacking of communication with workers and its union, AMWU, Toyota Australia canceled many bonus and allowance for the workers unilaterally, which caused strong protest. The replying strategy seems to be symptomatic and may contains personal judgment and without ethical consideration, the feedback from AMWU indicating that it could not last for a long run. The corporation still needs to seek for a chance to transform and alter its strategy. In this perspective, if Toyota quit manufacturing industry, there is no doubt that a large number of people in this industry will be influenced, not only the labors and employees, but also the component manufacturers.
The decision was influenced by many different factors as well as having knowledge that the car manufacturing industry is economically taxing. The fact that the production of cars in Australia was already in decline made a transformation possible as well as Australia’s high cost and low productivity. This can be viewed, said by Paul Bloxham who is HSBC’s Chief economist, as “globalisation” stating that Australia could obtain the same low-cost manufacturing in relation to the rest of the worlds manufacturing regions. Toyota felt that the Australian dollar was extremely high, and in this case was hindering the company’s exports from functioning sustainably, making the trades unsuccessful. As the engine and car producing company became part of the global manufacturing market, many inexpensive production expanses were located which shrank the size of the Australian industry.
Toyota, the last standing Australian manufacturer, has announced that they will cease producing cars in Australia in 2017 (Toyota Australia Announces Future Plan For Local Manufacturing, 2014). The coalition government made it clear that it was not prepared to further assist the Australian car manufacturers and consequently Holden and Ford closed their doors. Toyota followed suit as manufacturing in Australia was no longer sustainable due to the unfavorably high Australian dollar, high labor costs, highly competitive domestic market and overseas competition. (Australian Government Productivity Commision, 2014). Manufacturing has been a great source of pride for Australians over the many years and so this is a solemn time for the industry.
Most domestic business will not survive under such open competition, but Australia sees this as an opportunity to reshape its manufacturing base to become narrower and deeper, and more competitive. They see an ideal picture of Australia importing cheap manufactured goods from Asia instead of making expensive ones at home behind tariff, and Asia buying mineral... ... middle of paper ... ...or a tv program 'Embassy' which he claimed was mocking Malaysia. Australia also got into diplomatic problems with certain authoritarian regimes for critizing their behaviors. Its relationship with Indonesia is always tense for its criticisms of Indonesia over human rights, corruption, and the status of East Timor. Even Singapore didn't like Australia's comment on its harrassment of the Asian Wall St Journal and other newspaper.
The purpose of this report is to analyse and evaluate this decision by Toyota according to Shareholder and Stakeholder theories of corporate social responsibility and to identify the consequences of this decision along with responsibilities borne by Toyota, the Australian Government and the Australian Manufacturing Workers Union for these consequences. TOYOTA SHAREHOLDERS The high dollar and the substantially higher labour costs of automotive manufacturing in Australian compared to other countries such as China and Thailand have led to it not being viable for Toyota to continue to manufacture in Australia. Toyota’s decision to cease manufacturing in Australia will have consequences for numerous groups. However, according to Shareholder theory, as advocated by Milton Friedman, a narrow focus of profit maximisation is taken, in that the responsibility of Toyota is to generate profits for its shareholders (within the constraint of the law). The relentless pressure on vehicle producers worldwide to reduce manufacturing costs (“Pro... ... middle of paper ... ... in Australia, the automotive component sector will lose 30000 workers (Wallace &Ferguson, 2014).
Additionally, Volkswagen can produce a reduction of competition by diversifying its models to different market shares. By doing this, it will help keep their brands from competing with each other in the future. Volkswagen disadvantages come from increased risks, losing focus of each division of its portfolio, and the reduction in flexibility. Because they cover different markets, Volkswagen will suffer risks from every market. Since they have a broad portfolio, it will be hard to change and get rid of the unsuccessful companies due to the extraordinary exist costs.