“The best way to predict your future is to create it” (Lincoln). President states the principal of Reconstruction, where to unite the United States, there must be an authoritative action to carry it out. The Reconstruction Era (1863-1877) is a period where Lincoln sought to restore the divided nation by uniting the confederates and the union and to involve the freedmen into the American society. The main objectives were to initially restore the union, to rebuild the South and to enact progressive legislation for the rights of the freed slaves. Thus, the executive and legislature branches had enacted a series of polices to “create the future” for the United States. Although the policies tied down to the Reconstructive motive, there was controversy …show more content…
In July 1864, the Radical Republican proposed the Wade-Davis Bill in response to Lincoln’s lenient plan (Keene 412). The Radical Republicans Reconstruction Plan had called for the punishment of the South (SparkNotes). The Wade-Davis bill asserted congressional control over the rehabilitation of the defeated Confederacy and it also prohibited Confederate officials and veterans from voting (Keene 413). Lincoln, however, vetoed the bill because it was a harsher means to unite the country. This refusal had angered the Republicans and showed the contrasting opinions that the legislative and executive branch obtain about Reconstruction (Keene 413). With the ratification of the Amendments, tension built around the southern districts. To enforce the security of the African Americans elections, martial law (1867-1870) was implemented throughout the southern districts that included the Carolinas and Texas (Dockswell). The ex-Confederates were directly affected by the martial law and the upcoming Johnson plan because it had ultimately kept the southerners in surveillance and in strict provisions. Upon the assassination of Lincoln in 1865, the preceding President (Andrew Johnson) took a whole different approach to Lincolns Plan …show more content…
In order to unite the nation, intense dispute had aroused. Through various laws both African Americans and ex-Confederates were affected by the reconstruction period. Although the Reconstruction Era had gained a negative legacy, the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were a breakthrough in the life of African Americans. The continuous development of polices was to reach the intended goal that the Reconstruction Era was sought for, to unify the United States of
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The Reconstruction Era that followed the Civil War was created to represent a period of political, economical, and social reconstruction of the Northern Union and the eleven Confederate states of the South. Though the conclusion the Civil War and commencement of the Reconstruction Era represented the conclusion of slavery throughout the United States, it did not guarantee African Americans racial equality and freedom from prejudice and segregation in Southern states of the U.S. The few advancements during the Reconstruction Era, such as the establishments of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments failed to out weigh the extreme segregation caused by the early Black Codes and Jim Crow laws , gruesome violence derived from lynching
The governments established under Congressional Reconstruction made notable and lasting achievements. One positive outcome that resulted was the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which extended citizenship to African Americans and listed certain rights of all citizens such as the right to own property, bring lawsuits, and testify in court. Another major outcome was the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited the states from denying the right to vote because of a person’s race or because a person had been a slave. This finally granted African Americans the right to vote and marked an important change in the history of our country. A negative outcome resulted politically from congressional Reconstruction. Many of the federal laws concerning reconstruction led to the strengthening of the federal government at the expense of the states. These new laws often placed significant restrictions on state actions on the ground that the rights of national citizenship took precedence over the powers of state governments leading to an increase in sectional bitterness, an intensification of the racial issue, and the development of one-party politics in the South. Stemming from this “infringement” of states’ rights and intensified by the election of 1868 was another negative outcome. Fierce activities were stirred up by groups such as the KKK- violence became prominent, and terrorists and mobs attacked many people- mostly Republicans and blacks.
Between 1860 and 1877, America experienced a number of constitutional and social changes, as a result of the Republican election and loss of southern power that lead to the Civil War, and the reconstruction efforts that would follow, inevitably proving unsuccessful. During this period, the south, and the freedmen left residing in southern states as well, had to adjust to a new society, driven by constitutional developments such as the Emancipation Proclamation, and later, the 13th amendment, which freed slaves and left them to assimilate into a white civilization. These freedmen gained the rights to vote, hold positions of power in congress, serve in the army, and own land- which although would not last for a very long period- would prove to
In 1865 the beginning of the end of the Civil War was in effect called “Reconstruction”. The purpose of Reconstruction was to make the United States a unified nation once again. Reconstruction was a success in the sense of the southern states ratified the constitution and chose not to secede. The southern states also agreed to pledge loyalty to the union and ratify the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments. On the other hand, with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, by pulling the troops out of the South white slave owners regained power and the south slowly went back to the ways of the “old south”. The end of Reconstruction was influenced by specific causes such as: the northerners exhaustion with fighting the south and trying to punish the Klu Klux Klan, Radical Republicans being struck down by the Supreme Court, and white unionists, carpetbaggers, and scalawags being pushed out of the South by the Klu Klux Klan (Reconstruction (1865-1877)).
The period of reconstruction started in 1865 and lasted until 1877. The period of reconstruction was a way the north thought they were punishing the south; they wanted to rebuild and make the south better. Reconstruction took place after the civil war. The radical republican’s goals were black male enfranchisement and strong reconstruction policy for the south. (Williams, 8/25) During this time it was very challenging. When the reconstruction began, President Lincoln was in office. He came up with
In 1863, two years prior to the end of the Civil War, the Era of Reconstruction of the United States had begun. This period of reconstruction was a time of chaos and disorder uprooted from the strong resentment against white Southerners that postwar plans had created. Reconstruction plans of Abraham Lincoln, Radical Republicans in Congress, and Andrew Johnson were very diverse and contained many distinct differences. Passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which banned slavery, established the rights of African Americans, and defined the basis by which Southern states could rejoin the Union, inflamed this strong sense of anger and resentment. The actions of the Radical Republicans, especially, led to many changes in the South. Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, leaders of this zealous antislavery advocate group, held many motives which they hoped would lead them to possess power by taking advantage of South through any way possible.
World War II was only a proportion of what the United States was about to encounter. The South had suffered from the tramatic disaster of the war, and was in desperate need of reconstruction. Northern government officials were now suffocating in the difficult tasks they would have to perform to achieve their goal. As the African Americans were finally gaining freedom as well as other laws, the South and the North remained racist, whereas only the South acted upon their feelings with violence. Reconstruction was important because it was going to help the South get back on their feet. The South is the main reason for the end of reconstruction because of their white supremacist group, violent racism, and inability to follow government laws.
The Freedman Bureau in 1865 was formed by Congress, which was a plan to help the transition of ex-slaves from slavery, to freedom. School, jobs, shelter, and protection from ex-masters were provided. In 1866, Congress also passed the Civil Rights act, which affirmed the equal rights of all US citizens. However, the response to this act was very violent, especially from the Ku-Klux-Klan. They targeted blacks, especially males with their notorious acts. They would catch a man at night and give him an option, get castrated and live, or be lynched. In 1867, the Reconstruction Act was passed, it divided the South into five military districts, forming martial law in the area. Also, in order to vote, one must prove they did not support the Confederacy. The Fifteenth Amendment of 1870 was up next which stated that any person born in the USA is a citizen without regards to race, color, or previous conditions. In 1871, the Enforcement Act was set to target the KKK, in hopes to investigate them, break them, and eventually prosecute
Therefore, when the Senate’s control by the Republicans passed the Thirteenth Amendments and was approved by the Confederate states it became law on December 18th 1865 (Mullane, 1993, p. 293). The Thirteenth Amendment emancipated all U.S. Slaves no matter where they were located and the Southern blacks now had to face the many challenges the Northern blacks has face for many years (Reconstruction and Its Aftermath, n.d., para 1). The new Reconstructed Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment in which calling for equal protection for slaves under the law. Additionally, the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment had the power to abolish male suffrage, regardless of their race or color, but black women didn’t have the right to vote (Mullane, 1993, p. 293). The passing of the 14th and 15th Amendment was a huge success because it allowed the black males to have a say so in the new Congressional Reconstruction between 1867 and 1869 in which it allow black males the right to vote (Robin D. G. Kelley, 2000, p. 240). There was a major difference between the President Reconstruction plan and the Congressional Reconstruction because the
The Reconstruction debate has haunted historians since the process began. First, both politicians and citizens argued about how the ordeal should be carried out. Then, the historians analyzed and debated over the success of Reconstruction and the true motives of those who pushed for Reconstruction; for instance, questions regarding whether the radical Republicans really cared about obtaining freedoms for freed African Americans (rather than solely caring about revenge and power) and whether Reconstruction actually worked reigned. To answer such questions, various historians over time set forth different theories.
Reconstruction was a major changing point in people’s views of freedom, because it presented the very idea of freedom for more than just white males and laid the foundation for other movements to follow. It occurred after the Civil War from 1865 to its official end in 1877. It originated primarily out of necessity. The government needed a plan to deal with all the now freed African Americans and the once confederate states rejoining the union. The Republican Party backed it though they themselves could not agree on an official plan. Several plans emerged, but in the end, it was a hodgepodge of each plan put together. Several historians would probably argue that reconstruction fail...
The reconstruction period which is the period of rebuilding the United States after the civil war is said to be a time of great pain, and endless questions to the United States (Gienapp, 2012). The Civil War led to the end of slavery, and three constitutional amendments which altered the nature of the African-American rights. The Thirteenth Amendment facilitated the abolishment of slavery in all territories, and states. What is more, the Fourteenth Amendment proscribed the US from depriving male citizens’ equal rights, and protection under the law, in spite of their race or color. Likewise, the Fifteenth Amendment granted all African-American males, the right to vote. All these changes and their ratification was a vital requirement for the Southerners to be re-admitted to the Union. As much as these changes were positive steps towards racial segregation, their enforcement proved difficult as the Southerners were against them, terming them as revenge, from the Northerners. The Southerners could not hold onto the idea that, black men could enjoy the same status as white men by being allowed to vote, and hold office (Reconstruction: American’s Unfinished Revolution, 2010).
With the end of the Civil war in 1865, the new nation of the United States now faced challenges on restoring peace within the Union. The North, having won the civil war, now faced the task to implement reconstruction of the South. They came in contact with the questions of: What should happen to the freed slaves, should the freed slaves have rights, what should be done to the Confederate leaders, and how should the South be reconstructed? There were many different ideas and views on how Reconstruction should be handled, but only one succeeded more successfully than the other. Although they bear some superficial similarities, the difference between presidential and congressional reconstruction are clear. The president believed that Confederate
On paper, the Reconstruction had a lot going for it. Lincoln had proposed his ten percent plan. This plan would allow the Southern states to reenter the Union if each state redrafted its constitution and at least ten percent of all eligible voters in that state pledged an oath of allegiance to the United States. This plan seemed promising because it was easy access back into the union but Lincoln was assassinated before the plan could be implemented. On March 3, 1865, Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill which cre...
The reconstruction Era is the time after the civil war when we started to form ourselves as a complete united country. The civil war ended in April of 1865, and Abraham Lincoln was sadly assassinated less than a week later. Reconstruction was Lincoln’s idea, and he was largely anti-slavery, so his plan for reconstruction involved all states to draft new state constitutions that completely abolished slavery. It was his ultimate goal to reunited our nation after the war. Unfortunately, after his death, Lincoln’s vice president, Andrew Johnson, took over, and introduced a different plan for reconstruction. He said that states had to take a vow to abolish slavery before they could be readmitted into the nation, but after that, horrible black codes