Cabrera, Natasha, et al. "Fatherhood in the twenty‐first century." Child development 71.1 (2000): 127-136.
In this article, the editors discussed the social trends and how they can change in nature of father involvement. They tested how children today will make their expectations taking upon a role of mother and father. Increase in father absence is associated with poor school achievement, reduced involvement in labor force, early childbearing, and high risk-taking behaviors. In addition, boys without fathers will experience problems with their sexual orientation and gender identity, school performance, psychosocial adjustment, and self-control. The editors differentiated the girls by how affected they were without fathers.…show more content… "Father absence and the welfare of children." Coping with divorce, single parenting, and remarriage: A risk and resiliency perspective (1999): 117-145.
In this book, the editor made analysis on large representative surveys on children’s family structure. She used these surveys to distinguish families that have single parents, parents who were never married, divorced or separated parents, and remarried parents. According to her study, children are less likely to finish high school or college and keep their job. Also, without fathers they will more likely become adolescent parents. Furthermore, fathers are less likely to share incomes with their children when they do not live with their children.
Mitchell, Doris, and Warner Wilson. "Relationship of father absence to masculinity and popularity of delinquent boys." Psychological Reports 20.3 suppl (1967): 1173-1174. In this journal, the absence of father from home has an effect on the masculinity of delinquent boys. Without fathers, delinquent boys may commit violent, destructive, and aggressive acts. For example, committing homicide is considered as a result of the absence of a father figure and part of delinquent behavior. Lastly, boys without fathers will suffer through peer rejection. Different hypotheses were written in this