Jillian Dachman History 392, Dr. Lapsley 3.30.14 The years between 1890 and 1930 witnessed fundamental changes in sexual mores and practices, the reorientation of marriage toward companionate relationships, the emergence of distinct sexual taxonomies, and a shift from Victorian silence about the body and sexuality to the emergence of a new psychological language about sex. Despite the prevailing social attitude of sexual repression in the Victorian era, the movement towards sexual emancipation began towards the end of the nineteenth century and brought with it profound shifts in the attitudes towards women’s sexuality, homosexuality, pre-marital sexuality and the freedom of sexual expression. New norms of pleasure exposed a rhetoric of regulatory conceptual frameworks posited by “sexologists” who delivered psycho-medicalized sexuality to the masses of largely uninformed readers, thirsty for information and explanation. Men and women, reading the work of sex theorists such as Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud had different views on sex than had their parents before them. Victorian sexual counterculture contributed to the awareness of radical change that became the social matrix of sexual liberalism.
Then I will discuss sexuality as a form of desire (transgression of heteronormative ideal) and how the women’s movement in India is conceptualizing it. Sexuality as a Historical Concept : Normative vs Cultural Sexuality is a contested terrain in a country like India where only one form of sexuality is legitimate, Upper class and Male. All other forms of sexualities are swept under the carpet and often seen as taboos, deviant, illegitimate and harming the ‘Indian Culture.’ To understand social relations in any society in any given historical point, discussion of sexuality/sexualities remain important. Historically, there have been many approaches taken to understand the processes which define the ‘how and why’ of sexuality. Freud relegated sexuality to the realm of biology whereas Radical Feminism by critiquing Freud took it out of the interior, private space and juxtaposed it with other institutions to show how it is socially constructed, exposed it’s ‘gendered reality’ and identified Patriarchal structure as the root cause ￼￼￼￼ ￼of it’s hierarchical dimensions.
I bet they would have a hard time answering. The question puzzling society today is how do we define sex? Can we define sex? These are questions raised in Tracy Steele’s article “Doing it: The Social Construction of S-E-X”. This article is about the current questions and issues that have been raised about sex within today’s society.
Thus, sexuality is historically and socially made, and there is a struggle maintain the status quo. The ‘normalization’ of certain sexual relationships demonstrates the social nature of sexuality and is the crux of Kinsman’s argument: sex is primarily a social activity and is subsequently moulded via social relations. For example, homosexuality in contemporary society is more socially accepted than it was in the 19th century, even though homosexuality has existed since time
In the name of a biological and historical urgency, it justified the racisms of the state, which at the time were on the horizon. It grounded them in “truth." (Foucault, 1990, p. 54) Sexuality gained a connection to the truth. This results into the idea that sexuality is a part of identity and a key aspect in understating who we are individual. And all of this is only possible due to the discourse of sexuality, which is determined by social culture and time.
This paper will take a gander at the sex parts and generalizations, social arrangement, and homosexuality from a current and a conventional public opinion point of view. The three separate territories will be contrasted by the two separate social orders with see the amount changes has happened and whether anything has truly changed. When all is said in done a customary public opinion is more traditionalist where as an up to date pop culture is on a very basic level liberal. This is to say that a customary pop culture records certain parts relying upon the sexual orientation and there are generalizations that are associated with the sexes. One must comply with the particular case that is predominant and decide.
Understand the lesbian identity “…sex attains meaning in social relations, which implies that we can only make appropriate choices around sexuality by understanding its social, cultueral and political context.” (Quote: 9293 jeffrey weeks) The idea around the sexual tradition has drastically changed over the years; for centuries homosexuality was considered as a sinful act; but with developments in the scientific, cultural and social world this ‘act’ developed into an identity, a way of being based around characteristics which make an individual who they are. The essentialist theory reflects this in terms that in every concept known to be there is a formed idea around them; in terms of homosexuality the theory contributes to the idea that homosexuality is not just act, with reference to sodomy, but is a characteristic of the individual who engages in the act; an identiy. Throughout society there are a lot of identities one might categorize themselves within; based on knowledge and opinions and fundamentally a way of life. The Social Identity theory, proposed by Henry Tajfel in the 1970’s is designed to explain and help aid in the understanding of how it is one might develop a connection and belonging to particular groups within society; but more importantly providing an understanding as to how the mechanics of discrimination regarding other groups work. “In order to increase our self-image we enhance the status of the group to which we belong…we can also increase our self-image by discriminating and holding prejudice views against the out group (the group we don’t belong to).” (simplypsychology).
Homosexuals were viewed as suffering from gender disorders; they were not criminals, but abnormal and in need of a cure (Mottier, 39). What do all of these developments have to do with sexual behaviors becoming known as sexual identities? These changes of thought through time referenced in Mottier’s book serve as evidence towards her thesis that an understanding of sexuality develops from moral, biological, and social models of sexuality that can all be interpreted culturally (Mottier, 47). Mottier believes that understanding contemporary sexuality depends on understanding historical developments, and that from this understanding, we can precipitate change (Duncan, 2017). In short, ways in which sexual behaviors become known as sexual identities depend upon cultural and historical
However, there is no truth to it, but rather it is merely a vehicle for social control. Foucault distinguishes the discourses of sexuality from the science of sexuality, while also discussing how enforcement of the discourse on sex was made possible by various strategies of social control, such as the medicalization and scientification of sex. Further, he asserts that sex and sexuality became social issues in an effort to manage and direct the life of individuals, and this change contributed to providing society with more power over individual bodies through the “true” discourse of sex as this discourse internalized over time. According to Foucault, “truth is a thing of this world: it is produced only by virtue of multiple forms of constraint as it induces regular effects of power” (1980:131). Therefore, he suggests that the production of “truth” is not entirely separable from power, and knowledge is power, as it constitutes new objects of inquiry that can be manipulated and controlled (1994:97).
This argument is a psychologist’s nightmare, but for the concept of sexuality and identity it makes a lot of sense; it is a growing process based off a potential seed planted at the beginning of a person's life. "Sexuality is not a containable part of yo... ... middle of paper ... ...iven and achieved for heterosexuals in the cultural norms of today’s society. Sexuality and gender expression are difficult concepts to grasp even when you are within their spectrum, for there are so many differences that can form within them. Outside sources from society and growth of media acceptance have led to even greater movements of freedom within the sphere of gender and sexuality, creating the era of considering just what forms those desires and identities to begin with. We may never know the exact moment when a person becomes gay, but I believe with more time and studies we can figure out why.