Analysis Of Plato's The Republic And Politics

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In both The Republic and Politics, Plato and Aristotle discuss about how a society should be ruled according to their respective viewpoints. By differentiating between philosophical knowledge and non-philosophical belief, Plato is able to explain why philosopher-kings are ideal or why they rule in society. While Plato’s government is ruled by philosopher-kings, Aristotle’s is composed of a constitutional government, which he believes is the second-best state. In order to examine how Plato would react to such system by Aristotle, it is essential to first look at why Plato implements such practices in society.
In The Republic, Socrates, speaking from Plato’s perspective, conceives the notion that a society is in a perfect state when kings become
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Describing the citizens as being the key people in the city, Aristotle defines citizens as those different from slaves and outside residents; however, he describes that the citizen “has the right to participate in deliberative or judicial office” (III.1.1275b18-21). He says that citizens are more directly involved in the government. Aristotle describes this city-state as a plethora of citizens for self-fulfillment. Both the despotic rule and paternal and marital rule that Aristotle mentions relate to political rule, where the ruler and his citizens have equal rights, nothing more or less. All citizens, who are equal, take turns at ruling for another’s advantage, creating a balance in power of society. Aristotle claims his constitutional theory where “constitutions which aim at the common advantage are correct and just without qualification, whereas those which aim only at the advantage of the rulers are deviant and unjust, because they involve despotic rule which is inappropriate for a community of free persons” (III.1.1279a17–21). Aristotle describes six constitutional forms: kingship, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, polity, and democracy; however he claims that oligarchy and democracy are the best forms of government. In contrast, in Aristotle 's first-best constitution, every citizen will have moral property to take care, having the social responsibility, in order to attain success and satisfaction (VII.13.1332a32–8). Citizens will be able to have official positions in the public arena and own property because “one should call the city-state happy not by looking at a part of it but at all the citizens” (VII.9.1329a22–3). If citizens are not happy with they way they are living,
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