An Examination of Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Notable Modifications

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An Examination of Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Notable Modifications Sometimes the greatest test of a theory is its longevity. Over time, some theories will be disproved, some will be modified, and some will become the basis for a whole new group of theories. Leon Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance has stood up to challenge for over forty years, and is considered by many to be the single most important theory of social psychology. Though there have been modifications to the theory after many recreations and simulations of the original 1957 experiment, few have been able to really disqualify Festinger’s findings. It would be safe to say that many people don’t even have a full grasp of the incredible implications that Festinger’s research and experiments have towards the self-concept and behavior, myself not excluded. The actual definition of cognitive dissonance is almost too simple: an unpleasant feeling that arises from the contradiction of belief and action. Festinger, however, went on to find that dissonance would in fact change attitudes over time, helping people to justify their behavior when they know it is clearly wrong. Festinger’s original experiment was a simple procedure. Have someone perform a tedious task for a while, then inform the subject that the experiment is finished, but that they could be of assistance with the rest of the experiment as a research assistant. Festinger explained that his regular assistant was unable help that day, and that the experiment was an investigation of preconceptions on task performance. In other words, how will the performance differ when the subject has been told that the task is boring, as opposed to being told that the task is very enjoy... ... middle of paper ... ...bliography: Aronson, E., (1997) Back to the future: Retrospective review of Leon Festinger’s—A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. American Journal of Psychology, v110n1. 121-137 Girandola, F., (1997) Double forced compliance and cognitive dissonance theory. Journal of Social Psychology, v137n5. 594-605 Shultz, T.R., Leveille, E., & Lepper, M.R., (1999) Free choice and cognitive dissonance revisited: Choosing “lesser evils” versus “greater goods” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, v25n1, 40-48 Shultz, T.R. & Lepper, M.R. (1995) Cognitive Dissonance Reduction as Constraint Satisfaction. Psychological Review technical report # 2195 Smith, E.R & Mackie, D.M.(1995) Social Psychology textbook, 318-328 Stone, J. (1988) A Radical New Look at Cognitive Dissonance. American Journal of Psychology v111n2, 319-326

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