The focus was only on perceived predation consequently direct predation was eliminated. The method to eliminate the direct killing by a predator was by electrifying nests and barricading the nests with seine nets. In order to ensure that direct predation was strictly prevented, video surveillance system was incorporated into the experiment to watch over the nests.
To trigger the songbirds to predation risk, the researchers prepared playlists of the sounds of predator combined with a non-predator e.g. raven caw with a goose honk (Zannette et al. 2011). The reason why sound was chosen by the researchers for the study was because sound is transmitted efficiently through space relative to ocular signals or smell (Zannette et al. 2011). Sound is a suitable technique to expose wild animals to experimental predation cues since it travels a lot of distance hence it can cover a large area (Zannette et al. 2011).
Habituation is the action where organisms become accustomed to something. In order to prevent “habituation” the sound speakers were attached to trees at a height of 1.3m, and at regular intervals the speakers were moved to different trees and placed in different angles (Zannette et al. 2011). The volume at which the speakers were assigned (90 dB at 1 m) was inspected every time they were relocated, utilizing a sound pressure level meter. In this way the sparrows knew that the sounds were not coming from the same source all the time. Playbacks were broadcast 24 h...
... middle of paper ...
...r and bigger products were produced when situations involved facing predation challenges (Zanette et al. 2011).
There are other evidences of Predator-induced stress, such as in the case of dogs and snowshoe hares (Clinchy et al. 2012). In a study done, the dog acted as a predator to expecting snowshoe hares and the presence of the dog stimulated the rise of excremental glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in pregnant hares and the hares had less likelihood to give birth to alive offspring (Clinchy et al. 2012).
The experiment of exposure to predator signal stimulates ‘sustained psychological stress’ in animals and the intimidation instilled in preys is referred to as ‘ecology of fear ‘(Clinchy et al. 2012). Preys’ recognition of predation risk affects the population growth of the free wild animals significantly found through studies (Clinchy et al. 2012).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Slavery in America began in 1607. Blacks and a small percentage of whites were owned by people whom were called masters. The majority of slaves were involved with the responsibility of field work and picked such things as cotton, sugar, crops, etc. The blacks that were not slaves had only a limited amount of rights which included their own water fountain and the backseat of the bus. Throughout the first half of the 19th century, a movement to end slavery was in progress. By 1865, President Lincoln signed The Emancipation Proclamation and the Land of the free had began.... [tags: a new song, fences]
1005 words (2.9 pages)
- T.S. Eliot was able to capture the essence of the "Lost Generation" during a time when rapid change was taking hold of society. His unique style and his variety of free verse and rhythm made him one of the most well-known and respected writers of this era. Many considered "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" to be "the first masterpiece of English modernism" (Perkins 175). The modern viewpoint is best represented through the writings of Eliot as well as his ability to capture the complexities of living in an Urban environment, the internal struggles of man as an after effect of war, and the despair many were feeling as a result.... [tags: T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock]
807 words (2.3 pages)
- Flight in Toni Morisson's Song of Solomon I do not have the fondest memories of moving to this area. Of everyone in my family, I was the only one who did not want to move. I had no choice, however, so I had to live with it. Seeing how depressed I was, my parents decided to do something special for my birthday. Ever since I was little I had always dreamed of flying, so when we were in Crawford looking for property, my parents arranged for someone to take me up. The day was cold, cloudy and dreary, but the realization that I was actually going to fly made up for it.... [tags: Song Solomon essays]
1149 words (3.3 pages)
- An Analysis of Margaret Atwood's Siren Song Throughout her many years as a poet, Margaret Atwood has dealt with a variety of subjects within the spectrum of relationship dynamics and the way men and women behave in romantic association. In much of her poetry, Atwood has addressed the topics of female subjugation in correlation with male domination, individual dynamics, and even female domination over males within the invisible boundaries of romantic relationships. With every poem written, Atwood's method for conveying the message of the poem has remained cryptic.... [tags: Siren Song]
1529 words (4.4 pages)
- The Importance of Flight in Song of Solomon Flight is a major theme in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon. “Flight echoes throughout the story as a reward, as a hoped-for skill, as an escape, and as proof of intrinsic worth; however, by the end this is not so clear a proposition”(Lubiano 96). Song of Solomon ends with ‘flight’ but in such a way that the act allows for multiple interpretations: suicide; "real" flight and then a wheeling attack on his "brother"; or "real" flight and then some kind of encounter with the (possibly) killing arms of his brother.... [tags: Song Solomon essays]
990 words (2.8 pages)
- Prejudice in The Song of Roland Unfortunately, the role of ignorance and jealousy combining to breed fear and hatred is a recurring theme in history ultimately exhibiting itself in the form of prejudice. As demonstrated through the altering of historical events in The Song of Roland, the conflict between the Christian and Islamic religions takes precedence over the more narrow scope of any specific battle and is shaped, at least in part by the blind perception of a prejudice born of the ignorance and envy Christian Europe had for representatives of the non-Christian world.... [tags: Song of Roland Essays]
1724 words (4.9 pages)
- The Character of Pilate in Song of Solomon The character Pilate in Song of Solomon is portrayed in the role of a teacher or "guide". She tends to be a spiritual leader as well as a spiritual guide for Milkman and the rest of the society. It could be argued that she is the main cause of Milkman's liberation and better being. She represents the motherly love and gives the spiritual education that Milkman needs, in order to go through the monomyth process. She teaches Milkman the necessities of life not with severity but rather by means of being her own self.... [tags: Song Solomon essays]
811 words (2.3 pages)
- Literacy in Song of Solomon Through literacy will come emancipation. But emancipation comes in many forms, as does literacy. The various aspects of academic literacy are rather obvious in relation to emancipation, especially when one is confronted with exclusion from membership in the dominant culture. Most, but not all, of Toni Morrison's characters in Song of Solomon appear to have attained at least a modicum of literacy. But what part does literacy play in the advancement of the individual, and to what lengths will one go to achieve it.... [tags: Song Solomon essays]
918 words (2.6 pages)
- Fight for Control in Song of Solomon The idea of complete independence and indifference to the surrounding world, symbolized by flying, stands as a prominent concept throughout Toni Morrison's novel Song of Solomon. However, the main character Milkman feels that this freedom lies beyond his reach; he cannot escape the demands of his family and feel fulfilled at the same time. As Milkman's best friend Guitar says through the novel, "Everybody wants a black man's life," a statement Milkman easily relates to while seeking escape from his sheltered life at home.... [tags: Song Solomon essays]
1022 words (2.9 pages)
- The Song Many of John Donne's poems are on the subject of love and equally as many on the subject of sex. As a love poet, especially when Donne writes vividly on his wife he is very much concerned with his subject (his wife) however he can appear selfish and cold in the more sexual referenced poems. To fully make my point I have studied two poems, which I believe show his character as less self-absorbed as in the sexual referenced poems. This poem is written for his wife and is essentially saying goodbye as he is leaving her 'physically' but arguing that she mustn't be sad of his departure and instead arguing that they are not really parting and each verse is a different 'image' or argument... [tags: John Donne The Song Essays]
1822 words (5.2 pages)