As the virus approaches it’s new host cell, most immune cells have receptors on their surface, CD4 receptors. These alert the body that the immune system is under attack. Once the HIV binds with the T4-cell it uses it’s two strands of RNA for “reverse transcription”. After this binding process a viral capsid, infused with RNA and enzymes from the virus, is discharged into the host cell. The cell still needs to make a copy of the RNA and convert it to DNA. A viral enzyme, reverse transcriptase, catalyzes this biochemical necessity. The new strand is now referred to as a “proviral DNA”. Now that the cell has a new blueprint to corrupt the cell with it needs to be taken to the nucleus of the cell, where the original DNA strand is kept. The HIV virus needs to imbed it’s contaminated DNA into the nucleus of the cell in order to control the cell as a whole. The proviral DNA is hidden by integrase, a viral enzyme like transcriptase, this hides the DNA in the cell’s DNA. The efficacy of this process is successful when the cell is ready to create new proteins it inadvertently creates them with the new HIV DNA strands. The HIV DNA instructs the cell to produce more of ...
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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a take home HIV test, much like pregnancy tests you would take at home. These tests do not use urine though; they use a mouth swab that takes about a half of a hour to get the results for. The down side to take home test is that its accuracy is strong and faulty at the same time. It is 99.8% accurate for those who do not have the disease while it is only 92% accurate for those with the virus. If I were to be exposed to the virus I wouldn’t wait to take a faulty test I would seek immediate help. The time that it takes to find out if you have the disease is enough time for the virus to continually replicate itself further spreading the virus. I think that it is a blessing to have take-home tests like this, but I would personally want to know from a doctor on the off chance that the test could be inaccurate.
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