Treaty making with the United States began during the Revolutionary War of 1778 and ended in 1871. There are 367 treaties with undisputed status. The U.S. federal government tried to resolve its relationship with the various Native tribes by negotiating treaties. In each of hundreds of treaties that were negotiated, these were formal agreements between two sovereign nations. Native American people were citizens of their tribe, living within the boundaries of the US. The treaties were negotiated by the executive bra...
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...bal sovereignty" is fragmented into overlapping and contradictory rules premised on one foundation: the "plenary power" of the United States. Such "plenary power" is nowhere stated in the U.S. Constitution it is no more than a small nuisance that the judges have declared its existence. Administrative agencies and Congress alike grasp firmly to their judicially created prerogatives of total power over their "wards," in whose "trust" they act as they see fit. In 1934, the United States set out to "reorganize" indigenous peoples into elected corporate political structures, a formalized system of "tribal councils." The concept of "American Indian sovereignty" was used to justify sufficient authority in the "tribal councils" to maintain order within the "tribe" while denying these councils any authority beyond the territory which was "reserved" for them (d’Edrrico, 1997).
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