Diabetes Mellitus, more commonly known as Diabetes, affects approximately 26 million individuals in the United States. As a whole, Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic condition in which the body either expresses an intolerance to insulin, or is unable to produce enough insulin to meet its needs. Diabetes Mellitus is classified into categories, with Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational being the most well known. Each of these types may demonstrate many of the same signs and symptoms, however, there are differences worth taking note of in order to prevent future macrovascular and/or microvascular complications among diagnosed patients.
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is considered an auto-immune disorder characterized by a lack of insulin production caused by the body’s own destruction of pancreatic cells. The body needs insulin to process and store glucose for energy, and a lack of production causes blood glucose levels to become elevated. Roughly 5-10% of those who are diagnosed with diabetes fall into the type 1 category with numbers expected to grow within the next 20 years (Albright, 2013, p. 91). While diagnosis can occur at any age, a significantly large part of the type 1 diabetic community is diagnosed as children and adolescents, which is why type 1 diabetes is often referred to as juvenile onset, presenting itself between the ages of 5 and 7 years. In an online journal, Atkinson, Eisenbarth, and Michels (2013) explored the prevalence of type 1 diabetes within males and females and concluded that, “Whereas most autoimmune disorders disproportionately affect women, type 1 diabetes is slightly more common in boys and men” (para. 2.)
Diabetes Mellitus 3
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...Artery Disease, myocardial infarction, and peripheral artery disease are all common among diabetic patients, as well as microvascular diseases, which could include diabetic retinopathy, and kidney disease. According to Dr. Albright, in addition to being the leading cause of blindness, lower limb amputation, and kidney failure, diabetes mellitus puts individuals at an increased risk for a myocardial infarction and stroke (2013, p.95). Patients also report Diabetic Neuropathy affecting both the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, which if not handled properly, could lead to lower limb amputation.
While there is no sole treatment for diabetes itself, there are ways to manage symptoms. Those affected by Type 1 diabetes, must rely on daily insulin injections, which are used to supplement the body with enough insulin to process consumed sugars and carbohydrates, and
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