Diabetes Mellitus : An Autoimmune Disorder Essay

Diabetes Mellitus : An Autoimmune Disorder Essay

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Adriana Santiago
MED 2056
Diabetes Mellitus
Evelyn Sadsad

Diabetes Mellitus
The human body is a perfectly balance organism that needs to be in a state of homeostasis (balance) in order to function properly. Certain conditions however, can cause a disruption in the bodies equilibrium. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that disrupts the bodies normal sugar levels leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). There are 2 different types of diabetes mellitus. Knowing the difference between diabetes type 1 and type 2 is highly important in order to determine the appropriate treatment to manage the disease.
To understand diabetes mellitus, it’s fundamental to have an understanding in the anatomy and pathophysyiology behind it. First off, it’s important to point out that diabetes mellitus is consider an endocrine disorder. Endocrine disorders are usually caused by a disturbance in the bodies balance by either an excess or deficit of hormones. In the case of diabetes mellitus there is a deficit of an important hormone needed to regulate blood sugar levels. The pancreas is a small flatten organ/gland located behind the stomach. One of the functions of the pancreas is to secrete hormones into the blood to help regulate sugar levels. The pancreas has clusters of cells known as the islets of langhernes. The islet of langerhens is composed of beta and alpha cells. The Beta cells secrete insulin while alpha cells secrete glucagon (Rosdahl & Kowalsaki, 2012).
When a person eats, the food they consume is turned into energy in the form of sugar, and it’s stored in all the cells of the body. The cells need the stored sugar to carry out normal functions (such as fighting infection). In order for the cells to use the gluco...

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... inadequate nutrition (such as high consumption of fats and carbohydrates). Gestational diabetes is another common predisposing factor of diabetes type 2 (Rosdahl & Kowalsaki, 2012). Gestational diabetes is when women develop hyperglycemia during pregnancy. In comparison to diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 is most commonly associated with obese and older adults after the age of 40 (Rosdahl & Kowalsaki, 2012).
Early detection of diabetes is vital in order to avoid complications associated with the disease. There 3 different test used to diagnose diabetes. In order to diagnose a person with diabetes mellitus, two of the three tests must suggest clear findings of diabetes. In other words, the use of simply one test alone cannot confirm the diagnosis. Another fundamental element to point out is that both test must be confirm on different visits to the physicians office.

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