My rationale for writing this paper is to know what oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is and its effect on age, gender, and concurring behaviors (comorbidity) like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). How these conditions are affected in getting the proper diagnosis and treatment for ODD. Loeber, Burke, and Pardini reported in clinical groups among children, ODD is listed as one of the most commonly known behavioral disorders (as cited in Kazdin, 1995). Stringaris and Goodman (2009) found ODD is apparently very important among adolescents because of its strong connection with a large assortment of fully developed mental health disorders such as (as cited by Kim-Cohen et all., 2003, Nock, Kazdin, Hiripi, & Kessler, 2007) conduct disorder (CD) and an introverted disorder (as cited by Burke, Loeber, Lahey, & Rathouz, 2005; Costello, Mustillo, Erkanli, Keeler, & Angold, 2003; Ford, Goodman, & Meltzer, 2003).
What is Oppositional Defiant Disorder?
Defining ODD is where I will start. My first step is to disassemble the name and put it back together with a definition in its simplest form. I will use http://dictionary.reference.com/ as my reference: oppositional means the action of going against, conflicting, defying, or uncooperative. It also has the definition: a person or group of people standing firm, showing disapproval, or condemning something, someone, or another group. The AACAP (2006) stated from time to time children are rebellious especially if they are drained of their energy, lacking food, or just stressed out. The next word is defiant which means boldly resistant or challenging. Lastly, the word disorder means a disruption in physical or mental undertakings; problems ...
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...an children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51 (1), 23-30.
Pardini, D. A., Frick, P. J., & Moffitt, T. E., (2010). Building an evidence base for dsm-5 conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Introduction to the special session. Journal of Abnormal psychology, 119 (4), 683- 688. doi:10.1037/a0021441
Rowe, R., Maughan, B., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A., (2005). Defining oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46 (12), 1309- 1316. doi:10.1111/j.469-7610.2005.01420.x
Stringaris, A., Goodman, R., (2009). Three dimensions of oppositionality in youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,50 (3), 216-223.
Turgay, A., Psychopharmacological treatment of oppositional defiant disorder. (2009). CNS Drugs, 23 (1), 1-17.
Definitions: Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/
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