Anger is a complicated concept that is not very well understood by many. Anger can be negative as well as positive in certain circumstances. Everyone has experienced anger in their life time it is impossible to avoid. The management of anger is where it can cause problems. The term anger has been around for a very long time, and there is a scale to measure how angry someone is. When anger is better understood more resources will be available. It is in everyone’s best interest that more research be done to understand anger and how it affects the human body and one’s health.
Historical to Current Perspectives
Anger has been around since the evolution of the species. According to Merriam-Webster the word anger originates in the 14th century from Middle English. “Anger is a residue of our biological past, which under more civilized circumstances we can control only imperfectly” (Averill, 1983). Anger is expressed by facial expressions, body language, and acts of aggression verbally or physically. Ancient Greek philosophers, Galen and Seneca thought anger as a kind of madness. “A common medieval belief was that those prone to anger had an excess of yellow bile or choler” (Anger n.d. Reference.com). Anger was attributed to witch craft, and possession from the devil. People were expected to repress their anger. If anger was expressed uncontrollably people were shunned, isolated, or even punished. Rituals and exorcisms were sometimes performed. Trephination was performed on persons viewed as mentally ill. Trephination is drilling a whole into the skull to release evil spirits. Sometimes even lobotomies were performed to heal the patient. “Psychotropic drugs were not available until the 19...
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State-trait anger expression inventory. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://pmbcii.psy.cmu.edu/core_c/Spielberger_Trait.pdf
Stewart, J., Levin, R., Sass, S., Heller, W., & Miller, G. (2008). Anger style, psychopathology, and regional brain activity. National Institutes of Health, 8(5), 701-713. doi: 10.1037/a0013447
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