According to the CDC, cardiovascular disease claims 614,348 lives 2014 making it the leading cause of death in the United States. This accounted for 46.9% of all death in 2014. This percentage is estimated to increased three fold by the end of 2016 (Heron, 2016). This is a significant issue, mainly because, for the most part this is a preventable ailment. If not closely control, this can quickly become an epidemic as the overall death rate increase each year. To fully understand this disease, we need to first look at the root cause, coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery disease is a disorder affecting the blood vessels of the heart, generally in the form of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis literally means “fatty harden mush”. This is formed from the deposition of fatty material on the inner wall of damaged or injured endothelium (causes of endothelium damages are high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, infection, toxins) within blood vessels, mainly arteries. Over time substances traveling in the blood, pools in the damage tissue resulting in plaque formation. As the plaque formation progresses, it creates partial or full occultation of blood flow, which is the precursor to a myocardial infarction (Bucher & Johnson, 2014, p. 731).
Pathophysiology and disease process in the human body
Myocardial infraction is due to prolonged ischemia that causes “irreversible damage to the heart muscles” (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 604). Ischemia is usually the result of plaque or clot formation that decrease oxygenation and profusion to area “distal to the blockage, resulting in necrosis” (Bucher & Johnson, 2014, p. 731). This blockage may be a partial occlusion (non-STEMI) or completely occluded (S...
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...ed to “understand the lack of motivation to change lifestyle habits even after a serious health event as an acute myocardial infarction” (p. 295). This is an important finding to nursing practice as a core part of a nurse’s job is health promotion through patient teaching. By utilizing the above information, the nurse can increase the effectiveness of the teaching by “utilize a patient-centered, collaborative approach, [which] requires the nurse to engage the patient in the entire teaching/learning process, establish a partnership with the patient as the core member of the healthcare team, and empower the patient to make informed health decisions” (Wilkinson & Treas, 2016, p. 415). Another point that was noted was the importance of providing continual support to these individual as they work towards to maintaining a healthy life style and prevent future complication.
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