Breast Cancer Pain Essay

Breast Cancer Pain Essay

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Breast Cancer Pain
Breast Anatomy and Physiology

The breasts or mammary glands are sometimes considered a part of the reproduction system. Structurally, they are modified sweat glands. They are composed of mainly fat, breast tissue, nerves, veins, arteries, and connective tissues.

The breast is usually situated on top of the pectoral major muscles covering the second rib to the sixth or seventh rib and extends from the sternum to the mid-axillary line. Breast tissue has an axillary tail which extends into the armpit region. Most breast cancer originates here. The nipple is usually level with the fourth intercostal space in men and nulliparous women.

The connective tissues (suspensory or Cooper's ligaments) and fat help protect a network of milk producing glands and blood vessels. The Cooper's ligaments divide the breast into compartments of fat. They also help give the breasts their size and shape. The size of the breast changes depend on the hormone levels of a woman menstrual cycle. It is normal for the right and the left breast to be different sizes. However, the size of the breasts does not affect their functionality. The main function of the breast is to produce milk for nursing babies.

The arteries and veins allow circulation through breast tissue. The lateral thoracic, internal thoracic, intercostal, and thoracoacromial arteries and veins supply oxygen and nutrients to the breasts as well as removing waste from the sites.

The nerves that go through the breasts are cutaneous innervation, medial pectoral, lateral pectoral, and long thoracic nerves. These provide sensory input from the breasts to the brain. They also carry referred pain signals from the heart therefore are clinically important in a...


... middle of paper ...


...upuncture, massage, music therapy, hypnosis.



Works Cited

1. http://www.surgeryjournal.co.uk/article/PIIS0263931912002347/fulltext
2. http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/TheBreast.html
3. http://www.oucom.ohiou.edu/dbms-witmer/Downloads/2012-04-24_Dashner_RPAC-BreastAnatomy.pdf
4. http://classes.ansci.illinois.edu/ansc438/mamstructure/histology_3.html
5. http://www.healthcentral.com/breast-cancer/c/78/63099/breasts-breast?ic=2602
6. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003152.htm
7. Multi-author, Mayo Clinic Family Healthbook, William Morrow and Company, NY, 1990
8. McMahon S., Koltzenburg M., et al, Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain 6th edition. Elsevier Saunders 2013.
9. Lu W, Rosenthal D. Acupuncture for cancer pain and related symptoms. Current Pain And Headache Reports [serial online]. March 2013;17(3):321. Available from: MEDLINE, Ipswich, MA.

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