Welcome back. During the past several power points, we have discussed various statistical techniques using a dependent variable at the interval or ratio level.
This power point presentation presents the statistical technique, Chi-Square, which is designed to test the significant relationship between the attributes or categories of a nominal independent variables and a nominal dependent variable. There are two types of Chi-Square Tests - Chi-Square Test for Independence and Chi-Square for Goodness of Fit. This powerpoint is limited to discussing the Chi-Square Test for Independence.
The test may be based on a cross tabulation such as a 2x2 table with 2 categories for the independent variable and two categories for the dependent variable.
An example of the research question utilizing a chi-square analysis is, “Are males more likely to be smokers than females?”
The independent variable is gender with the categories of male and females and the dependent variable of smoker with the attributes of yes or no.
The null hypothesis states that no association exists between the variables of gender and smoking.
Because the variables are at the nominal level, we use frequencies or percentages.
Therefore, our hypothesis would assume that the percentages for each group such as females who smoke are equal to males who smoke.
Here’s an example of the SPSS output of a 2x2 table using 2 categories for the independent variable and two categories for the dependent variable.
Each square which contains a number is called a cell.
As with any test, there are specific assumptions to follow.
First, each cell should have a frequency count of at least 5.
Some researchers ...
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To determine the magnitude of Cramer’s V, you must first calculate you must first complete the following formula as the magnitudes are different for the number of cells for each row and cell.
Our interpretation is quite brief; however, we must adhere to APA style as provided on this slide.
The interpretation begins with a statement of the association between the variables.
Next, we provide the Chi-Square symbol first.
It may be helpful to cut and past the Chi-Square symbol used in this slide to use in your interpretations of your SPSS homework assignments.
This is followed by the degrees of freedom and the total N of the sample in parentheses, followed by the p value and phi value.
This concludes the instruction on Chi-Square Test for Independence. If you have questions, please review your textbook or post your question on “Ask Your Professor.”
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