Analysis Of Chi / Square Test For Independence And Chi Square Essay example

Analysis Of Chi / Square Test For Independence And Chi Square Essay example

Length: 1546 words (4.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

12 – Chi (Ki) Square
Slide 1:
Welcome back. During the past several power points, we have discussed various statistical techniques using a dependent variable at the interval or ratio level.
Slide 2:
This power point presentation presents the statistical technique, Chi-Square, which is designed to test the significant relationship between the attributes or categories of a nominal independent variables and a nominal dependent variable. There are two types of Chi-Square Tests - Chi-Square Test for Independence and Chi-Square for Goodness of Fit. This powerpoint is limited to discussing the Chi-Square Test for Independence.
Slide 3:
The test may be based on a cross tabulation such as a 2x2 table with 2 categories for the independent variable and two categories for the dependent variable.
Slide 4:
An example of the research question utilizing a chi-square analysis is, “Are males more likely to be smokers than females?”
The independent variable is gender with the categories of male and females and the dependent variable of smoker with the attributes of yes or no.
The null hypothesis states that no association exists between the variables of gender and smoking.
Because the variables are at the nominal level, we use frequencies or percentages.
Therefore, our hypothesis would assume that the percentages for each group such as females who smoke are equal to males who smoke.
Slide 5:
Here’s an example of the SPSS output of a 2x2 table using 2 categories for the independent variable and two categories for the dependent variable.
Each square which contains a number is called a cell.
Slide 6:
As with any test, there are specific assumptions to follow.
First, each cell should have a frequency count of at least 5.
Some researchers ...

... middle of paper ...

To determine the magnitude of Cramer’s V, you must first calculate you must first complete the following formula as the magnitudes are different for the number of cells for each row and cell.
Slide 21:
Our interpretation is quite brief; however, we must adhere to APA style as provided on this slide.
The interpretation begins with a statement of the association between the variables.
Next, we provide the Chi-Square symbol first.
It may be helpful to cut and past the Chi-Square symbol used in this slide to use in your interpretations of your SPSS homework assignments.
This is followed by the degrees of freedom and the total N of the sample in parentheses, followed by the p value and phi value.
This concludes the instruction on Chi-Square Test for Independence. If you have questions, please review your textbook or post your question on “Ask Your Professor.”

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about The Chi Square Test For Independence

- Chi-Square is a statistical test that is utilized to make comparisons of observed data with data that the researcher expects to find with respect to a specified hypothesis. The test is used to determine whether the deviations in the data observed from the expected data have occurred just by chance or is caused by other factors (Brooks, 2008). The Chi-Square is usually employed to test the null hypothesis. For instance, it can be used to test whether there is no significant difference between the expected and observed outcomes....   [tags: Regression analysis, Linear regression]

Better Essays
810 words (2.3 pages)

Purpose And Interpretation Of A Chi Square Essay

- Discussion 2. 1) Read Reading 3 and Reading 4, 2) describe the purpose and interpretation of at least 3 statistical 3) introduce one article that used at least one of the 3 statistical methods, including the purpose, statistical method(s) used, the findings based on the statistical method(s), and interpretation of the findings, and 4) discuss whether the authors used appropriate statistical methods to address the purpose and interpreted the findings appropriately. 1) Chi Square A Chi-square is a nonparametric test that identifies if what we think is going to happen actually does happen in a distribution of frequencies....   [tags: Statistics, Statistical significance]

Better Essays
786 words (2.2 pages)

Essay on Three Study Boxes: Written Corrective Feedback

- Study Box 1 Background This study investigated how both teachers and ESL students perceive written corrective feedback (WCF), focusing on their perception about the usefulness of different types and amount of WCF as well as their reasons for having such perceptions. Research questions 1. What amount of WCF do ESL students and teachers think is most useful, and why. 2. What types of WCF do students and teachers think are most useful, and why. 3. What types of errors do students and teachers think should be corrected, and why....   [tags: Chi Square Test, Teacher Perception]

Better Essays
1239 words (3.5 pages)

Discussion About Statistical Analysis and Results Essay examples

- DISCUSSION ABOUT STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS; Statistical analysis two independent sample tests compare the mean of the randomised case-control group. To find the significant difference between the two groups, data collections are mean value, so t test is the suitable test to compare the mean value of the two groups in normal distributed data (Menz, 2004). Result of the t test shows body mass index significant p value .005 less than .05 and the mean value of the BMI in case group greater than control group....   [tags: Statistical Analysis ]

Better Essays
1329 words (3.8 pages)

Putting It All Together : Writing A Statistical Analysis Report Essay

- Putting it all Together: Writing a Statistical Analysis Report Sheila E. Brooks Stanbridge College May 3, 2015 Introduction So this is our final week in statistics. Until now we have learned the basic of statistics and statistical analysis but some of you may be asking the question what do we do with the information collected. Or how do we write a good report or research paper. Perhaps, some would like to learn how to write a variance analysis report. So week we will focus our attention on variance analysis reports, the significance of a variance analysis and how to write up an analysis of variance....   [tags: Analysis of variance, Statistics, Clinical trial]

Better Essays
1246 words (3.6 pages)

Attitudes and Practices of Rural and Urban Women Towards Breastfeeding Essay

- CHAPTER - V RESULTS This chapter dealt with the findings of the study to compare the knowledge, attitudes and practices of rural and urban woman towards breastfeeding. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data and analysis was done with the help of descriptive statistical method and chi - square test. P value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results were presented under the following headings: Part I: Deals with the frequency and percentage distribution of demographic characteristics of rural and urban women....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

Better Essays
2300 words (6.6 pages)

Analyzing The Steps Of Meta Analysis Essay

- Figure 1 illustrates the steps of meta-analysis; this method indicates that it needs a range of skills and a multi-disciplinary team which is a basic activity in meta-analysis. Step one: Frame a study question It is the first step for meta-analysis to frame a study question, such as in health problem. For example, Peck (2013) did an experiment about the difference in blood pressure response to ACE inhibitors between black and white populations; they use meta-analysis to evaluate the magnitude and direction of the difference in blood pressure....   [tags: Scientific method, Experimental design]

Better Essays
719 words (2.1 pages)

Nonparametric Analysis of Interactions Essay

- This review targeted different techniques used in the analysis of experiments, when no assumptions about the underlying distribution of the observations is made and interactions are present. Table 1 presents a review of nonparametric methods for factorial designs with interactions as well as hypothesis testing. The search engines used were Web of ScienceTM and Google ScholarTM. The search was focused on interactions and univariate factorial analysis topic-related papers that used the fixed effect model from the classical statistics approach....   [tags: factorial, nonparacmetric, interactions]

Better Essays
1251 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on Henry James' ‘Washington Square

- Henry James' ‘Washington Square In ‘Washington Square', Henry James used a refined technique of narration, language, symbolism and irony as he explored the psychological dimensions of his characters' actions, motivations and interpersonal relationships. He did so as he confronted the tragedy of the immorality of human beings, personified in the characters of Dr. Sloper and Morris Townsend, in dominating the spirit of Sloper's daughter, Catherine, for their own ends. In other works of fiction where the oppressive circumstances of protagonists usually arise from failures of society and within the specific individual there is often an optimism to the extent that it is suggested that progress m...   [tags: Henry James Washington Square Analysis]

Free Essays
1413 words (4 pages)

Henry James' Washington Square Essay

- Henry James'Washington Square Henry James' Washington Square is more than a simple novel with simple characters connected by a simple plot. There are more complex issues brought forth within the text besides a daughter heartbroken over her father's control and the departure of her money grubbing suitor. Yet only the simplistic issues and characterizations are brought forth in the critical article written by Elizabeth Hardwick. Within the pages of "On Washington Square," published in English 3230, Hardwick offers her readers the entire plot, including the ending of James' novel, without shedding new light on the text....   [tags: Henry James'Washington Square]

Free Essays
409 words (1.2 pages)