“In the 1870’s, buildings rarely exceeded four stories.” It wasn’t until the improvement of iron and steel as a structurally sound material that the taller buildings became the real world. These advancements in architecture allowed architects of that era to experiment. The bulk of skyscraper advancement can be linked to the shocking fire that cleared most of Chicago in 1871. City officials changed from wood to firepr...
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Breslin, Cynthia L., “Empire State Building Opens.” Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1901-1940. E Book Edition.
Michael Tavel Clarke, “Chapter 4: The City of Dreadful Height: Skyscrapers and the Aesthetics of Growth,” in These Days of Large Thing, ed. (The University of Michigan Press, 2007).
Montgomery Schuyler, “The Chicago Architects,” Annals of American History, 1.
Schlager, Neil, and Josh Lauer. "The Empire State Building: Skyscraper Symbol of America's Power." In Science and its times: understanding the social significance of scientific discovery. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001.
Skrabec, Quentin R.. "World's First Skyscraper." In The 100 most significant events in American business: an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood, 2012.
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