Adolescence is the time-frame when children transition into adulthood, usually beginning between age 11 or 12 concluding in the late teens or early twenties. Adolescence offers the fortuity for psycho-social, physical, cognitive and physical growth, with a stipulation of risk to healthy development by making poor choices and risky behavior such as unsafe sexual activity, substance abuse and inferior peer relationships. The impact of adolescence physically; puberty marks the termination of childhood as we know it, these changes can have a profound affect psychologically. Hormonal changes present during puberty can trigger mood swings, erratic and fluctuating behaviors. Generally, puberty takes four years to complete, with girls beginning earlier than boys, the culmination of puberty results in an individual’s ability to reproduce. Puberty for both girls and boys include growth spurts, the maturity of reproductive organs, production of sperm and the beginning of menstruation typically occur around age thirteen.
Psychological effects are dependent on the shame, or acceptance, the adolescent identifies with throughout these physical changes. Early development can pose undue stress for girls, whereas, late development, can pose undue stress for both girls and boys. Adolescents are less likely to be seen in regular medical visits, usually only seen when ill, making it difficult to identify health risks or delays in development. Lack of sleep becomes a rite of passage, with teens unaware of the toll this has on their healthy and cognitive abilities, disturbing their natural sleep rhythms. During this period time body image concerns become overwhelming, eating disorders are born...
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...ically between the ages of seven and eleven, thinking becomes more focused and organized, with stewardship of numerals, overall area, orientation and volume. Rational, problem solving and logical thought patterns become typical. However, their ability to hypothesize or think in abstract idiosyncrasies, these skills will be developed during the formal operational stage. Development requires that all individuals learn within the limitations of these stage’s, these stages serve as foundational development blocks. The formal operational stage differs from concrete operational stage, as it utilizes the newly mastered focus and organizational skills, in abstract thought. Formal operational stage allows the individual to use critical thinking to abstractly determine various results to potential actions, connecting a sequence of events and the consequences’ that can result.
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