A considerable amount of literature has been published on cannabis specifically marijuana. These studies classify marijuana into three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. In fact, Cannabis sativa is the most widely used and recognized among the other species due to its ability to produce more fiber and oil. For many years, the plant has been used for making clothes as well as lighting and soap. Nevertheless, cannabis is widely used at the present time for intoxication and medical treatments. Marijuana is usually extracted from the flowers of the female plant (Grinspoon & Bakalar, 1993). According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana is well-defined as the “dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which contains the psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as other related compounds. This plant material can also be concentrated in a resin called hashish” (NIDA, 2014).
Numerous studies have attempted to explain the use of cannabis throughout history. For example, Doweiko (2009) mentioned that the Chinese physicians have used the cannabis to treat some diseases such as malaria, constipation, child birth, and as an anesthetic for surgery. During the nineteenth century, cannabis (marijuana) is also used for medical purposes to treat headaches and migraine. However, during the early years of the twentieth century, people began to view cannabis as an abusing drug as the researchers determined its ineffectiveness as a medicinal drug. Some historians have argued that marijuana was first introduced into the American society by the Mexican immigrants during the same period. This recreation drug was soon embraced by ...
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Shohov, T. (2003). Medical use of marijuana: Policy, regulatory, and legal issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Shrivastava, A., Johnston, M., & Tsuang, M. (2011). Cannabis use and cognitive dysfunction. Indian journal of psychiatry, 53(3), 187.
Shukla, R. (2013). Inside the Gate: Insiders’ Perspectives on Marijuana as a Gateway Drug.
Sidney, S., Beck, J. E., Tekawa, I. S., Quesenberry Jr., C. P., & Friedman, G. D. (1997). Marijuana Use and Mortality. American Journal Of Public Health, 87(4), 585-590.
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