A Review of the Literature on Marijuana Essay

A Review of the Literature on Marijuana Essay

Length: 3126 words (8.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview


A considerable amount of literature has been published on cannabis specifically marijuana. These studies classify marijuana into three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. In fact, Cannabis sativa is the most widely used and recognized among the other species due to its ability to produce more fiber and oil. For many years, the plant has been used for making clothes as well as lighting and soap. Nevertheless, cannabis is widely used at the present time for intoxication and medical treatments. Marijuana is usually extracted from the flowers of the female plant (Grinspoon & Bakalar, 1993). According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, marijuana is well-defined as the “dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which contains the psychoactive (mind-altering) chemical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as well as other related compounds. This plant material can also be concentrated in a resin called hashish” (NIDA, 2014).

Numerous studies have attempted to explain the use of cannabis throughout history. For example, Doweiko (2009) mentioned that the Chinese physicians have used the cannabis to treat some diseases such as malaria, constipation, child birth, and as an anesthetic for surgery. During the nineteenth century, cannabis (marijuana) is also used for medical purposes to treat headaches and migraine. However, during the early years of the twentieth century, people began to view cannabis as an abusing drug as the researchers determined its ineffectiveness as a medicinal drug. Some historians have argued that marijuana was first introduced into the American society by the Mexican immigrants during the same period. This recreation drug was soon embraced by ...


... middle of paper ...


...s, W. G., Branchini, J., & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. (2012). The relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence in a nationally representative, longitudinal sample. Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(8), 1562-1578.
Shohov, T. (2003). Medical use of marijuana: Policy, regulatory, and legal issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Shrivastava, A., Johnston, M., & Tsuang, M. (2011). Cannabis use and cognitive dysfunction. Indian journal of psychiatry, 53(3), 187.
Shukla, R. (2013). Inside the Gate: Insiders’ Perspectives on Marijuana as a Gateway Drug.
Sidney, S., Beck, J. E., Tekawa, I. S., Quesenberry Jr., C. P., & Friedman, G. D. (1997). Marijuana Use and Mortality. American Journal Of Public Health, 87(4), 585-590.
Tardiff, J. C. (2008). Marijuana. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Tuyl, T. C. (2007). Marijuana. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.



Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Legalization of Marijuana: A Review of the Literature

- California was the first state to pass a marijuana law in 1913 followed by the rest of the states in the nation until the year of 1937, when marijuana became completely illegal at the federal level. (Guither) Before then, marijuana and specifically hemp had many uses for colonists and farmers and was such a critical crop for a number of purposes, that the government even encouraged its growth. It was not until Henry J. Anslinger saw the Bureau of Narcotics as a fascinating career opportunity that he latched on trying to make marijuana illegal so he could make a name for himself....   [tags: controversial topic, hemp, crops, medicine, weed]

Powerful Essays
2033 words (5.8 pages)

Should Marijuana Be Legal? Essays

- Recently doctors have prescribed marijuana, and “the Clinton administration threatened to prosecute doctors who prescribe marijuana,” (Gonnerman 40). Doctors are prescribing marijuana for its medical benefits. The Clinton administration on the other hand is outlawing marijuana because it has not been approved by the FDA. Since doctors feel marijuana has medical benefits it should be clinically tested so they can prescribe it for their patients. Marijuana can be used for many medical reasons. For cancer patients receiving chemotherapy marijuana decreases vomiting and nausea; it also helps them deal with the anxiety of the treatment....   [tags: legalization of Marijuana]

Powerful Essays
1225 words (3.5 pages)

Marijuana Should Be Legalized Essay

- The war on drugs has been an ongoing battle in the U.S. for many years. This war, on drugs, is a primary necessity to stopping drug abuse. Furthermore, of all the drugs with war waged against them, there is one that has controversially made its way to the spotlight of becoming legal. Indeed, any one person, without studying the facts, can determine marijuana should be illegal for it, at most, generates no medical gain. Likewise, there is a common consensus of bias that marijuana legalization would promote zero gain in any category and legalization of marijuana would be all destructive to our society....   [tags: Marijuana Should Be Legal]

Powerful Essays
1983 words (5.7 pages)

The Legalization of Marijuana Essay

- The topic of the debate is the legalization of marijuana. Many states have began to pass legislature on the use and sales of marijuana, whether is medicinal or for recreational usage. In 1972, the US Congress placed marijuana in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act because they considered it to have "no accepted medical use." At the present time there are 20 states plus the District of Columbia that has legalized the sale of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Those states are Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington State (proco...   [tags: drugs, tobacco, alcohol]

Powerful Essays
1578 words (4.5 pages)

Essay about The Effects of Marijuana on Today’s Youth

- Introduction The use of drugs and mind-alternating substances has been a part of society for decades. The ‘high’ that people attain from the use of such substances is very attractive and exciting however, the effects of this use are minimized. Particularly for youth, a group of individuals who are seeking independence and experimentation, drug use represents the balance between taking risks and taking responsibility for one’s actions. However, the developmental processes of adolescents are known to not encompass the maturity required to fully think through such decisions....   [tags: risks, responsibility, progress, preventative]

Powerful Essays
2813 words (8 pages)

Why Marijuana Should Be Tested for Medicinal Purposes Essay

- Many opposers believe various legal drugs make medicinal marijuana use unnecessary, but varied strains of marijuana should be tested for medicinal purposes because there are many patients who have medical issues without known treatments that could have relief from medicinal marijuana, it could be used as a natural alternative to chemically enhanced or harmful treatments, and it could lead to the discovery of uses of marijuana for reasons outside of medicine. One reason marijuana should be tested for medicinal purposes is there are many patients with diagnosis’ that are intractable, or hard to treat and deal with....   [tags: cannabinoids aid in multiple symptoms]

Powerful Essays
1144 words (3.3 pages)

The History of Marijuana Essay

- Numerous studies have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of Medical Marijuana. In this paper, we will examine the history and beginnings of this drug and how it has affected society. Many laws and policies have been created to restrict the use of this drug, but the goal of this paper is to show it can also positively affect ill patients. Cannabis, the proper name of this hemp plant, contains cannabinoids like THC. Cannabis has had many positive physiological and psychological effects on the body....   [tags: how cannabis has affected society]

Powerful Essays
3169 words (9.1 pages)

Medicinal Marijuana As A Treatment For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )

- Literature Review Medicinal marijuana as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a topic that brings forth much debate. Our opposition for identifying PTSD as a debilitating condition that qualifies for medicinal marijuana treatment is based upon the lack of research available demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cannabis as treatment modality for this condition. Much of the research available on medicinal marijuana as a treatment for PTSD is based upon subjective or anecdotal data; there is a lack of randomized clinical trials measuring the efficacy of this intervention (Bonn-Miller & Rousseau, 2015)....   [tags: Cannabis, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Sleep]

Powerful Essays
708 words (2 pages)

Essay about Should Marijuana Be Legalized?

- Watch as the flame ignites and hold it against the coarsely ground substance inside of a detachable glass piece. While inhaling, watch the flame disperse towards the bottom of the glass, observing the smoke forming around the sound of bubbling water. While still inhaling, pull away the glass sliver, quickly watching the smoke travel upwards into the lungs. Euphoria surrounds the body. It is no longer tense, and the problems start to fade away, feeling almost liquefied in the euphoric state. Every person is different, just as every person has a different experience when under the influence of marijuana....   [tags: Cannabis, Hemp, Hashish, Drug addiction]

Powerful Essays
1216 words (3.5 pages)

Social Work Literature Review Essay

- Literature Review INTRODUCTION It is of paramount consideration that social workers are conscious of, aware and sensitive to the cultural demands of their clientele. This is because culture is a pivotal factor upon which a great deal of conduct, norms, social connections and mindsets of clients revolve. For social workers there is need to understand and appreciate how cultural traditions influence relationships with a diverse panorama of client needs and demands....   [tags: Literature Review]

Free Essays
1904 words (5.4 pages)