One of the greatest debates among scientist today is the root cause of the Pleistocene Megafauna extinction. Human hunting tops the list with certain disciplines of science, archeologist for example who study human prehistory (the Clov...
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... (Barnosky et al., 2004)
Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction
R. Dale Guthrie Nature Sept 2003
Range sizes and shifts of North American Pleistocene mammals are not consistent with a climatic explanation for extinction
(Brigid S. Grund, Todd A. Surovell and S. Kathleen Lyons) (Grund, et al., 2012)
Extinctions of herbivorous mammals in the late Pleistocene of Australia in relation to their feeding ecology: No evidence for environmental change as cause of extinction
C. N. JOHNSON AND G. J. PRIDEAUX
(Johnson and Prideaux 2004)
Was a hyper-disease responsible for the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction?
Ecology Letters (2004) 7: 859–868
(Lyons, Smith, Wagner, White, Brown)
Palaeolithic extinctions and the Taurid Complex
W. M. Napier 2010 February 21
Copyright of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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- During the late Pleistocene, a mystery occurred in which large mammals went extinct in North America while they survived in other parts of the world. Scientists studying the late Pleistocene extinction provided a plethora of explanations, including overkill by humans, extraterrestrial events, and climate changes (Faith and Surovell, 2009). However, there was no unified explanation that they all agreed upon. Taking note of this, J. Tyler Faith and Todd A. Surovell conducted tests to discover whether the extinction was a single event or a long-term process.... [tags: Paleontology]
1339 words (3.8 pages)
- Preface: Ecological Inception The end of the Pleistocene epoch which had blanketed the globe in its last Ice Age approximately 11,800 years ago – paved the way for the Holocene epoch and its interstadial environmental changes (World Almanac Education Group, Inc. 2014). The essential global warming of the Holocene gave rise to bodies of water due to melting glacial masses, and altered habitable landscapes replacing the barren tundra with a wide-variety of prominent forests and an abundance of vegetation (Mithen; Ed.... [tags: Human, Human evolution, Pleistocene, Neolithic]
864 words (2.5 pages)
- Each year,millions of people across the world travel to marine parks, for the chance to see one of the most intelligent, fascinating beings of this Earth, the marine mammal. However, this aquarium is actually a torturous jail cell for the marine mammals that inhabit it. Research has shown that these animals were never fit for captivity. In fact, according to the popular documentary “Blackfish”, more than seventy trainers have been injured by the captive marine mammal, though not a single aggressive tendency toward humans has ever been documented to have occurred in the ocean.... [tags: Whale, Killer whale, Marine mammals, Cetacea]
915 words (2.6 pages)
- Earth is the planet that rich of living things and they are biologically classified into Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. Mammal is one of the classes in Kingdom Animalia. Several studies have been conducted to visualize the evolution of mammals from their ancestors. Mammals have several descriptive characteristics which are their evolution trend, reproductive behavior, physical appearance, specific blood circulation system and their feeding behavior (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).... [tags: biology and taxonomy]
1020 words (2.9 pages)
- Ever since the Pleistocene era, human societies have expanded rapidly, developing innovative ways to defend their territories and migrate across the land. Consisting of an aggregate of humans living together, these societies became more powerful as time progressed by consuming more meat (megafauna). Supporting this development, the more mammals that humans would eat, the more protein their bodies would absorb. When humans consume high amounts of protein, they develop stronger muscles, which leads to the stimulation of brain activity.... [tags: Human Ecology]
868 words (2.5 pages)
- The fossil record demonstrates that mammals re-entered the marine realm on at least seven separate occasions. Five of these clades are still extant, whereas two are extinct. the degree to which each of these clades has adopted an aquatic lifestyle. Both Cetacea and Sirenia originated at about the same time and were fully aquatic by the end of the Eocene epoch. Each of these evolutionary histories is different from the others based on which changes in each anatomical system occurred. Despite this ﬁnding, they all have one change in common at the very beginning.... [tags: Mammals, Marine, Aquatic Lifestyle, Water]
979 words (2.8 pages)
- The sense of smell is one of the earliest developed senses in existence, as well as one of the most important. Out of the subphylum Vertebrata, the class Mammalia have the greatest olfactory perception and the most specialized of noses. As well as in some other vertebrates, the sense of smell is distinct in mammals, but at the same time unlimited in its ability to tell the difference between smells. The first people to notice the importance of scent glands in mammals were perfumers. These various glands produced the odours of musk, civet, castor, and ambergris.... [tags: subphylum Vertebrata, the class Mammalia]
1850 words (5.3 pages)
- Effects of The Pleistocene Epoch on Colorado INTRODUCTION Glaciers are an integral part of the world’s climate. In fact, as Richard Armstrong of the University of Colorado says, “Glaciers are key indicators in monitoring and detecting climate change” (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, 2003, p. 1). Not only are they an important part of monitoring current climate, they can hold many keys to the past. Glaciers are in fact, “a source of paleoclimate data…” (Meier and Dyurgerov, 1980, p. 37). This paleoclimate data can give geologists information on the conditions that were present at the time of the glaciers birth, as well as the approximate age.... [tags: Glaciers Nature Essays]
3006 words (8.6 pages)
- Transport in Mammals A recurring theme in biological systems is the surface area to volume ratio. All cells require nutrients and most require oxygen as well. Wastes also need to be removed. With a small organism this demand can be met by simple diffusion over the body surface but larger or very active organisms need a transport system with a pump to ensure that the supply meets the demand of all cells, even those deep within the body. In mammals, the pump is the heart. Substances are carried in a transport medium of the blood.... [tags: Papers]
2426 words (6.9 pages)
- Mammals as BioContol Biological control is a method of decreasing the population of pests that compete with vegetation. There are different methods of bio-control. Farmers use parasites, diseases, and predators as forms of bio-control in their fields. Sheep, goats, bats, cats, and mice are among the different mammals used for pest control. Sheep are used to control leafy spurge on many rangelands, and bats for controlling insects. We will discuss the benefits and downfalls of sheep and goats controlling unwanted weeds, and how a study has been done to prove that bats have made a huge difference in the population of insects that harm agricultural crops.... [tags: Environment Farming Agriculture Essays Papers]
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