As cities became more popular, families left their large homes for smaller apartments. There was no longer room for women to give birth in their homes. In the early 1900s, less than five percent of women went to the hospital to have their babies, within fifty years more than eighty-five percent of babies were born in a hospital. (Feldhusen, 2000)
Anesthesiology was seen as a right and women fought for a less painful option during childbirth. In 1910s, “twilight sleep” began to gain popularity but was not widely available. An injection with the combination of scopolamine and morphine caused the woman in labor to forget her entire experience, including the pain. (Skowronski, 2015) Twilight sleep was used almost universally by 1940. (Feldhusen, 2000) Unfortunately, the drug combination proved dangerous physically and psychologically.
Despite the shift of birth taking place in hospitals, between 1915 and 1930 infant mortality actually increased by 10%. Women were only infrequently receiving prenatal care. These deaths were also attributed to interventions that were used inappropriately or too frequently. (...
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... a certified midwifery position. This form of midwifery is recognized and licensed in all 50 states. A master 's or doctoral degree is required as well as clinical supervision and a current registered nurse status.
Certified midwives (CM) are only licensed in New York New Jersey and Rhode Island they are permitted in Delaware and authorized in Missouri. There is a degree requirement but they do not need to be registered nurses. They must complete clinical supervision and demonstrate their competency.
A certified professional midwife (CPM) is not required to hold a degree and is certified through portfolio evaluation or completion of a midwifery educational program. They are licensed through their individual states but only permitted and 27 of the states. Certified professional midwives are not permitted in hospitals but are required to complete clinical education.
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