Using A Convenience Sampling Method ( P. 1147 ) Essay

Using A Convenience Sampling Method ( P. 1147 ) Essay

Length: 1402 words (4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

A study conducted by Li, Zhou, Yan, Wang, and Zhang (2011), selected their sample using a convenience sampling method (p. 1147). The authors calculated the sample size based on the parameters of state anxiety, which is found in other related studies on cancer patients (Li, Zhou, Yan, Wang, & Zhang, 2011, p. 1148). In order to detect the difference of five state anxiety score between two groups, the authors calculated that 100 patients (50 patients for each group) is needed for this study, with a power of 80% at the 5% level of statistical significance (Li et al., 2011, p. 1148). However, the authors increased the sample size to 120 patients to allow for a 20% drop-out rate (Li et al., 2011, p. 1148).
For specificity purposes, no blinding was done in the selection of patients for this study. Even though the potential for bias increases because of the lack of blinding in selecting the sample (Grove, Burns, & Gray, 2013, p. 331), the authors utilized a computer program with 120 numbers for randomization of participant assignments to the experimental and the control groups (Li et al., 2011, p. 1148). Additionally, the inclusion criteria for this study is, “female aged between 25 and 65 with a pathological diagnosis of breast cancer requiring radical mastectomy [including modified radical mastectomy and extensive radical mastectomy (ERM)].” (Li et al., 2011, p. 1147-1148). On the contrary, the exclusion criteria included patients who were allergic to sound, did not prefer music listening and had the voice sensitivity of epilepsy (Li et al., 2011).
No mention of a sampling attrition rate was mentioned prior to the first post-test; however, a total of 15 patients (12.5%) were lost to follow-up (Li et al., 2011, p. 1150). The Human Re...


... middle of paper ...


...further examination on the effects of music therapy for this specific population group is suggested (Li et al., 2011).
Implications for practice and policy were clearly discussed by the authors in this article. For the nursing practice, music therapy can be used as an alternative intervention in caring for patients in a non-acute recovery stage of illness (Li et al., 2011, 1153). Additionally, it is recommended that patient’s favorite music should be selected to have better effects in reducing anxiety levels (Li et al., 2011). For policy, music therapy can be used as part of the nursing care practice under the instructions of the Core, Care and Cure mode (Li et al., 2011). Moreover, knowledge learned about music therapy can be utilized as the content for educating patients to help them reduce their anxiety levels and improve self-care capability (Li et al., 2011).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Sampling Method Using Sampling Technique Essay

- Sampling Technique The sampling method used in this experiment was transect sampling. Six evenly spaced transects were selected for this study, with three on each side of the path. Each group was assigned one transect to collect samples along various points. Transects were approximately 50m in length. Samples were taken at three different points along each transect, at 5m, 30m, and 50m. At the first point of sampling at 5m, 4 beat samples were taken, and 2 pitfall traps were set about 1 meter apart from each other....   [tags: Sample size, Sample, Sampling]

Better Essays
732 words (2.1 pages)

Essay on Sampling Methods And Sampling Method

- There are many sampling methods and each of sampling method has its advantages. Researchers need to select well of the sampling method to improve the data quality and overall results quality. There are a pool of sampling methods to choose from including simple random sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling and cluster sampling (Oulte, 2011). Each sampling method can be applicable at different situations and times. For simple random sampling, it is more suitable applying for when the whole population is available to reach for researchers; for the stratified sampling, it is more appropriate when there are specific sub-groups which has direct relationships with the research objective...   [tags: Sampling, Stratified sampling, Cluster sampling]

Better Essays
1305 words (3.7 pages)

Essay about Using Quota Sampling And Non Probability Sampling Method

- Conducting research is an important part of growing logical thinking in order to answer questions involving human interactions. Furthermore, offer an understanding of the dynamics of day-to-day life in the modern world. As a result, it is necessary to practice proper sampling methods to conduct effective researches. Therefore, when designing a study to measure public opinion regarding police use of force, using quota sampling would be the logical choice to use for this study. Referring back to class discussion, this non-probability sampling method, in particular, takes on people to divide them into groups in order to fill in quotas....   [tags: Sampling, Sample, Sampling error, Sample size]

Better Essays
1169 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Selection Bias And Non Random Sampling Method

- 3.4.1 Bias This is study will be prone to selection, recall, social desirability and compliance biases due to the non-random sampling method (survey) and non-participation of some medical doctors. 3.4.1.1 Selection bias Selection bias is defined as an error brought in when the study population is not representative of the targeted population (60). It can occur during the recruitment of study participants or during the course of retaining the research subjects (61). Although this survey intends to recruit all the eligible medical doctors from the graduate years 2013-15, it is possible that some participants may withdraw, not respond or never be contacted despite several attempts resulting in...   [tags: Scientific method, Sampling, Physician]

Better Essays
1801 words (5.1 pages)

Essay on Sampling And Methods Of Sampling

- This memo would be an overview of sampling, starting with the definition of what sampling is, when and how it is used ranging to the discussion of different types of sampling and the risks related to them. The memo will also discuss the steps involved with sampling and the role of sampling in auditing including the attributes sampling and the variables sampling. Sampling is to draw a conclusion efficiently about a population of interest by testing the acquired assurance on a subset of that population, which is called the sample, at less cost of time and money than those of testing the whole population....   [tags: Sampling, Sample size, Sampling error, Sample]

Better Essays
1811 words (5.2 pages)

Sampling, Sampling And Quota Sample Essay

- a. In statistics, a population is a collection of individuals, things, events, etc. The population is the topic that one wants to make inferences on, whereas a sample is a subset of the population that is being collected—to be studied. After the sample is studied in statistics, one draws an inference of the population. There are four general sampling methods used in statistics: representative sample, random sample and quasi-random sample, stratified and quota sample, convenience sample, and purposive sample....   [tags: Sampling, Randomness, Statistical population]

Better Essays
726 words (2.1 pages)

Investigating Sampling Biological Populations? Essay

- Investigating sampling biological populations Quadrats One technique which can be used to sample biological populations is the use of quadrats. A quadrat is a small plot of land which is used to mark off an area in order to sample a population within that area. There are a few types of quadrats which can be used when you want to sample populations in a habitat. Two types are a wire quadrat and a point quadrat. A frame quadrat is usually just a square frame, but it can be other shapes as well such as rectangular, with a grid of wire inside....   [tags: Sample size, Sampling, Sample, World population]

Better Essays
1353 words (3.9 pages)

Systematic Observation, Controlled Sampling And Predetermined Recording Methods

- Systematic observations consist of clearly outlined procedures, controlled sampling and predetermined recording methods. They make up a subset of naturalistic observations. Miller (1977) defines systematic observation as the addition of quantification to naturalistic investigations. Since a measurement scale is usually chosen before quantitative data is collected, the systematic method involves more planning in regards to what behaviors will get observed. The time and place for an observation are always determined prior to the observation and the observer must establish a specific operational definition for the targeted behavior, e.g....   [tags: Observation, Scientific method, Hypothesis]

Better Essays
701 words (2 pages)

Sampling Methods Essays

- Sampling Methods A great deal of sociological research makes use of sampling. This is a technique aiming to reduce the number of respondents in a piece of research, whilst retaining - as accurately as possible - the characteristics of the whole group. The purpose of taking a sample is to investigate features of the population in greater detail than could be done if the total population was used, and to draw inferences about this population. In addition, at the practical level, a sample is likely to be both cheaper and quicker to investigate....   [tags: Papers]

Better Essays
1031 words (2.9 pages)

Sampling Essay

- Sampling Carrying out a survey of every single potential consumer (known as population) of a firm's product would be impractical, time-consuming and costly. Businesses still, however, need to collect enough primary data to have a clear idea of the views of consumers. This can be done by taking a sample of the population. This sample group should be made up of consumers that are representative of all potential buyers of the product. There are a number of ways in which a sample can be chosen....   [tags: Papers]

Better Essays
595 words (1.7 pages)