For specificity purposes, no blinding was done in the selection of patients for this study. Even though the potential for bias increases because of the lack of blinding in selecting the sample (Grove, Burns, & Gray, 2013, p. 331), the authors utilized a computer program with 120 numbers for randomization of participant assignments to the experimental and the control groups (Li et al., 2011, p. 1148). Additionally, the inclusion criteria for this study is, “female aged between 25 and 65 with a pathological diagnosis of breast cancer requiring radical mastectomy [including modified radical mastectomy and extensive radical mastectomy (ERM)].” (Li et al., 2011, p. 1147-1148). On the contrary, the exclusion criteria included patients who were allergic to sound, did not prefer music listening and had the voice sensitivity of epilepsy (Li et al., 2011).
No mention of a sampling attrition rate was mentioned prior to the first post-test; however, a total of 15 patients (12.5%) were lost to follow-up (Li et al., 2011, p. 1150). The Human Re...
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...further examination on the effects of music therapy for this specific population group is suggested (Li et al., 2011).
Implications for practice and policy were clearly discussed by the authors in this article. For the nursing practice, music therapy can be used as an alternative intervention in caring for patients in a non-acute recovery stage of illness (Li et al., 2011, 1153). Additionally, it is recommended that patient’s favorite music should be selected to have better effects in reducing anxiety levels (Li et al., 2011). For policy, music therapy can be used as part of the nursing care practice under the instructions of the Core, Care and Cure mode (Li et al., 2011). Moreover, knowledge learned about music therapy can be utilized as the content for educating patients to help them reduce their anxiety levels and improve self-care capability (Li et al., 2011).
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