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    Investigating the Effect of Concentration on the Temperature Rise, Heat Evolved and Heat of Neutralization for the Reaction Between HCl and NaOH Neutralization is the special name given for the reaction between an acid and an alkali leading to the formation of water molecules and a salt. The reactions between basic oxides, or hydroxides, and acids are very important and are called neutralizations. Since the metallic ions and anions from the acid do not change, the essential reaction of neutralization

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    than that of the product. The energy is given out when forming the bonds between the new water and carbon dioxide molecules. The amount of energy produced by such exothermic reactions can be calculated by using the formula : Mass of the substance x rise in temp x SHC( specific heat capacity). The specific heat capacity is the number of joules required to heat one gram of water by 1ºC. I chose to use water because it is safe, easily found, and has a reliable specific heat capacity of 4.2. The bond

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    year is 2100. With average worldwide temperatures rising by six degrees Fahrenheit (EPA qtd Washington Post 1) numerous environmental problems have resulted. With the temperature rise Arctic and Antarctic ice caps began to melt, the resulting sea level rise wiped out numerous coastal cities. Along with the sea level rise came the destruction of ocean habitats and changing currents resulted in the death of numerous species of fish and sea life (Last 6). Temperature increase caused many diseases that

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    Investigating the Effect that Concentration Has on a Reaction INTRODUCTION ============ Aim- to investigate the effect that concentration has on a reaction on these factors: * Temperature rise * Heat evolved * Heat given off due to the neutralization between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium hydroxide solution. Neutralization takes place when acids react with substances called bases. When they react their acidity is cancelled out, and the reaction always produces a salt and water

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    achieve a temperature rise of 15°C. The enthalpy change of combustion is the amount of energy transferred when one mole of a substance burns completely in oxygen (always ´ve). To work out the enthalpy change of combustion of the alcohols the energy output must be measured. The easiest way to do this accurately is to use the thermal energy of combustion to raise the temperature of a substance with a known specific heat capacity, (the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1g of

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    from page 2: Energy Transferred = Mass of water x Temperature rise x specific heat capacity (4.17) Now to calculate the enthalpy change of combustion, the following steps are taken: 1.) Energy per gram = Energy Transferred ÷ Average mass change of alcohol 2.) Energy per mole = Energy per gram x Molecular mass The Energy Transferred from each alcohol is constant as the variables, volume of water (200ml) and temperature rise (15oC) were kept constant. Therefore the calculation

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    to do so. This can be worked out by using the formula: q = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature rise or q = MCΔH. Where q is the quantity of heat. The specific heat capacity is the amount of energy required to heat the substance, and is calculated using the formula: q =energy supplied/ Mass x Temperature, where q is the enthalpy, c is the specific heat capacity and ΔH is the temperature rise. I chose to use water as it is safe, easily obtainable, and has a constant, reliable specific

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    There are factors which affect the rate of a reaction, and also if the collisions are successful or not. Temperature rise gives particles more energy, and as thy move around more and much quicker they have collisions. Also it gives particles more energy, so that when they collide the collisions are more successful. Both these things mean that there is a faster reaction rate. But, if temperature decreases there is a slower reaction rate, as there is less energy. If there is larger surface area, it

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    population. [IMAGE] Causes: - The causes of these forceful floods can be traced back to a number of different things including human factors such as deforestation, the greenhouse effect (this is show by the facts stating the 1°C temperature rise in southern Germany and the winter precipitation in the Rhine catchment increasing by 40%) and the straightening of the Rhine for commercial purposes. Humans currently use 80% of the former floodplains. Roads and railways cross the alluvial

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    time we are going to have to perform the experiment, we are first going to find out a set up that would allow us to produce definite results quickly. By this I mean that we will to set up the apparatus in a way that would give us a large temperature rise in a short amount of time, e.g. 2 or 3 minutes. Here is a diagram of how we set up the apparatus. To perform this experiment we needed: * Electric weighing scales * A measuring cylinder * 5 spirit burners (1 for each fuel)

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