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    Seventeenth-century European study was controlled by two powerful forces: the Roman Catholic Church, headed by the Pope, and ancient philosophy dominated by the 2000-year-old ideas of the Greek philosopher, Aristotle. The Church had an overwhelming influence on the lives of most Europeans. During Galileo’s time one in twelve people living in Rome was either a cleric or a nun.1 The Church forbid any teaching that deviated from what was taught in the Bible. To enforce this control, the Church set up

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    The Degradation of Women in American Scholar In "The American Scholar," Ralph Waldo Emerson characterizes the nature of the American scholar in three categories: nature, books, and action.  The scholar is one who nature mystifies, because one must be engrossed with nature before he can appreciate it.  In nature, man learns to tie things together; trees sprout from roots, leaves grow on trees, and so on.  Man learns how to classify the things in nature, which simplifies things in his mind (section

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    Oneness in Walden, Nature and American Scholar Some of the most prominent works which express a relationship between the individual and nature are undoubtedly Walden by Henry David Thoreau and the essays written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, specifically Nature and The American Scholar. In each of these works, an idea of wholeness, "oneness," with nature is expressed. Thoreau and Emerson both believe that man, in order to live a full, happy life, must live in harmony with nature. Both writers share

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    Edification or False Idolatry in Emerson's The American Scholar Commencement speeches are customarily routine, pedantic, platitude filled, mildly inspiring lectures.  This description, however, was never applied to Ralph Waldo Emerson's oration, "The American Scholar," delivered to the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard in 1837.  Oliver Wendell Holmes called this speech America's "Intellectual Declaration of Independence."  In addition to being a call for literary independence from Europe and

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    In an address to the scholars in the Phi Beta Kappa society at Cambridge in Massachusetts Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 delivered a speech in which he stated that the literature during the European influence required scholars to memorize texts written by other writers. The speech was titled The American Scholar and the main idea of his speech was that the literature in America should be completely different from the European literature. Basically the scholars should have the freedom to write in any

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    British would. In 1837 Ralph Waldo Emerson delivered a speech called The American Scholar at Cambridge, Massachusetts to criticize how the Americans still kept alive what they had learned from the British and to remind people the real American culture in every aspect of their lives. Emerson stated that every citizen in America has the right to freedom and to display their own culture. In literature he suggested that scholars can form a new way of writing through nature than memorizing the writings of

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    Anthem

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    you can see Science fascinated him. For example in chapter 1 while it was dark Equality 7-2521 would sneak into a dark tunnel in which he would spend 3 hours doing scientific research, and experiments. He would also steal manuscripts from the scholars, and every night he would study. This went on for two years. The difference between Equality 7-2521 and his society is that he actually wanted to succeed, while the rest of his society would settle for what they were told to be. The "glass box"

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    Islam in morned times

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    Mission Statement for The Study of Islam Section @ the American Academy of Religion The American Academy of Religion is the world's largest learned society and professional association of scholars and teachers in the field of religion. Through academic conferences, publications and a variety of program and membership services, the American Academy of Religion (AAR) fosters excellence in scholarship and teaching. It also aims to advance publication and scholarly communication on religion; to welcome

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    New Trends and the Evaluation of Scholarship

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    Scholarship is both the work, and the result of the work, performed by scholars to produce new information to be added to a body of knowledge. The addition of scholarly work to a body of knowledge is accomplished by communicating, usually in writing, either in print or digital format, the findings produced by scholarship to the wider, usually academic, community. Borgman (2000) defines scholarly communication as “…the study of how scholars in any field…use and disseminate information through formal and

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    Polonius: A Fool in Shakespeare’s Hamlet

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    into every language. Polonius is one of the major characters in Hamlet, his role in the play is of great interest to scholars. Parts of Hamlet present Polonius as a fool, whose love of his own voice leads to his constant babbling. Scholars have been analyzing the character of Polonius for centuries, and his role in Hamlet will continue to be analyzed for centuries to come. Scholars believe that Shakespeare created Polonius as a fool because of his foolish dialogue throughout the play. Polonius granted

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    Spring 2005

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    In the first section of essays the authors discuss how and why feminist scholars do research is grappled with in each selection. The authors/feminist scholars discuss the importance of research and methodology. Sandra Harding asserts in her essay, “Is There a Feminist Method?” Harding argues that it is “difficult to define a distinct feminist method because method and methodology have been intertwined with each other and with epistemological issues.”(2) Moreover, it is, she argues difficult and potentially

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    Jean De Meun

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    and Jean added some 18,000 lines afterwards. This poem is considered to be the most important work to come from Old French literary tradition and it enjoyed a considerable amount of success among medieval scholars, with over two hundred manuscripts made of it at that time. However, scholars today have a hard time understanding the true meaning of the poem. "The Romance of the Rose" was translated into Italian, Dutch, and English by the late fourteenth century, a marvel for a literary work of that

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    Memoirs of a Geisha

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    The real interest of this book is in the first half - her training and schooling. After that, the book devolves into a rather standard romance-novel-type plot concerning Sayuri's love for the Chairman, an important figure in her life. Ivy, Resident Scholar The story of a Japanese girl with unusual grey eyes that is taken away from her poor fishing village at the age of nine to be taken into slavery and be trained to become a geisha. Nitta Sayuri faces the many hardships of the art of becoming a geisha

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    Mary Lefkowitz vs. the Afrocentrists

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    noteworthy efforts to revise or completely disrupt the traditional/canonical notion of intellectual history (and by extension, that of Western Culture) come from a segment of the intelligentsia known as the Afrocentric scholars. In its most radical form (such as that practiced by such scholars as Leonard Jeffries), Afrocentric scholarship argues that virtually all of the Western intellectual tradition was lifted (without credit) from African thinkers. The radical Afrocentrist contends that the West is the

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    Aryan Invasion Theory

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    interpreted throughout time, to mean that the war occurred between a lighter skinned civilization (Aryans) and more dark skinned civilization. Scholars believed that the Aryans came into India around the time of 1500 BC, since the Indus Valley culture was earlier than this, they concluded that it had to be preAryan. It was also assumed by these same scholars, much of them who were of Christian origin, and unsympathetic to the Vedic culture, that the Vedic culture originated from primitive nomads

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    Analysis Of 1 Samuel 1:28

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    life and contributions of Samuel. Like most of the bible, scholars have tried to determine the author, date of writing, purpose of the text and the historical and chronological order of events. The author is unknown. Some scholars believe Zabud, son of the prophet Nathan, a priest and the “personal adviser'; to King Solomon, wrote the text shortly after Solomon’s death. Others believe Samuel himself wrote the text, while some scholars believe the priest, Ahimaaz, was the author. Most do agree

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    I and II THESSALONIANS: The books of I and II Thessalonians, which are in the New Testament, are both letters to a church that Paul the apostle helped establish in the city of Thessalonica. First Thessalonians is agreed by biblical scholars to be written by Paul. The author of II Thessalonians, however, is still being debated about. In II Thessalonians itself, and in secondary sources, there is evidence to support the theories that Paul wrote II Thessalonians as well as the first letter but also

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    Gawain and the Green Knight is anonymous, there are many clues that can help us understand who the writer might have been and where he might have lived. When trying to learn about the circumstances in which a piece of medieval writing was produced, scholars first look to the manuscripts in which the text is preserved. We can learn a lot just from the way it was written and manufactured. In the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, it is preserved in only one manuscript-that is, the only reason that

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    friend) to promise not to tell anyone about the tunnel. In this journal he tells how he was different growing up because he was smart, and would question things until his teachers forbade it. He explained how he wanted to be assigned to the Home of Scholars, who developed all the technology for the society, which would be his job for the rest of his life. Instead he was assigned to the House of Street Sweepers. Chapter 2- Equality7-2521 falls in love with a girl he sees working in a field for the

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    MERLIN

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    MERLIN There is bitter controversy among scholars and theologians alike as to whether of not Merlin was a real historical figure or a product of literary imagination. Much of the earlier poetry attributed to him in Welsh manuscripts, it seems, comes from authentic prophetic verse that Merlin himself spoke. Merlin was first seen in Geoffrey of Monmouthís History of the Kings of Britain written c. 1136. Many people do not accept Geoffreyís words as truth. Many say that Geoffrey wrote Merlinís legendary

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