Protocols Essays

  • Protocol: The Kyoto Protocol

    1201 Words  | 3 Pages

    The Kyoto Protocol Introduction The Kyoto Protocol is one of the most ambitious international environmental agreements to date. Adopted on 11 December 1997 by negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the treaty’s aim was to commit countries to a 5% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their 1990 levels (Prins and Rayner, 2008). These commitments in GHG reduction, CO2 emissions in particular, were to begin in 2005 with goals expected to be reached

  • The Kyoto Protocol

    998 Words  | 2 Pages

    established policies to limit the emission of green houses gases. International agreements established by the United Nation’s Kyoto Protocol and European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EUETS) attempted provide monetary incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the establishment of carbon credit program and artificial carbon trading markets. Under the Kyoto Protocol countries are allocated carbon credit to emit specific quantities of greenhouse gases based on previous emission levels. The nations

  • The Kyoto Protocol: The Failure Of The Kyoto Protocol

    950 Words  | 2 Pages

    The Kyoto Protocol was a valiant effort that bound developed countries to decrease their domestic emissions to 5 percent below the 1990 level by 2012 in order to reduce global CO2 emissions. Most industrial countries fulfilled their goals on paper. However, global CO2 emissions actually increased by 58 percent (Mystrick).Although many claim the United States’ refusal to sign the Kyoto Protocol was the reason for its failure, the mechanisms of the protocol likely would have rendered it unsuccessful

  • Importance Of Routing Protocols

    1646 Words  | 4 Pages

    CHAPTER 3 Routing Protocols The nodes in Ad hoc network are free to move in random fashion within the network region due to which the network topology changes randomly or dynamically. This random movement of nodes plays an important role on the performance of routing protocols[30,31]. Considering the node mobility feature it is essential to choose a suitable routing protocol based on the network environment. Because the nodes are mobile in nature and are moving randomly anywhere so its an important

  • The Importance Of Kyoto Protocol

    1234 Words  | 3 Pages

    Whether Kyoto protocol was unsuccessful, but, there are some countries that has been successful in implementation of Kyoto protocol. There are Germany, Sweden, and United Kingdom, as well as United Nations members. Besides, it was indicates that European Union (EU) have agree in joining a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 (UNFCCC, 2014). In addition, EU was strongly support the establishment of Kyoto protocol into the convention and, makes recognition of Kyoto

  • The Vulnerability of Antiquated Protocols

    564 Words  | 2 Pages

    Protocols are a common focus of attack because of the number of devices that can be targeted. Devices made by different vendors are able to communicate and work with each other because of standard protocols that allow them to understand each other. The wide use of these protocols makes them an appealing target to attackers. If a flaw can be found in a popular protocol, then many devices made by different vendors will be vulnerable to the attack. There are a number of different protocols over the

  • Racial Profiling: Individual Prejudice or Organizational Protocol?

    1627 Words  | 4 Pages

    Racial Profiling: Individual Prejudice or Organizational Protocol? Racial profiling is generally defined as discrimination put into action based on a stereotype. No one is excluded from the potential to experience some form of racial profiling, regardless of one’s race, gender, or religion. Racial profiling has existed in various forms since slavery. During the reconstruction of the South, the first sense of racial profiling began with “Black Codes”. “Black Codes” were created to maintain a new

  • The Importance Of The Kyoto Protocol

    3243 Words  | 7 Pages

    problem. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement that was formed in 1997 to reduce the amount of carbon emissions globally. It is an important achievement in the international community because it is the only international agreement that sets legally binding carbon limits on the countries that participate (2). While the United States is a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, it was never ratified by the Senate. The United States opted not to participate in the Kyoto Protocol, much to the disappointment

  • Essay On Cache Coherence Protocols

    1565 Words  | 4 Pages

    Literature Review On Cache Coherence Protocols Shared memory multiprocessors provide the advantage of sharing code and data structures among the processors comprising the parallel application. As a result of sharing, multiple copies of the shared block exist in one or more caches at the same time. The copies of the shared block existing in different aches must be consistent.t. This is called as the cache coherence problem. Various protocols have been designed to ensure coherence in hardware and policies

  • Policy Implications from the Montreal Protocol

    3765 Words  | 8 Pages

    Policy Implications from the Montreal Protocol Executive Summary In the mid 1980s, the international community decided to address the issue of ozone depletion. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was signed, setting out abatement schedules for major ozone depleting substances. Due to several unique factors surrounding the issue of ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol was, and continues to be, a great success. That being said, there are a number of problems that parties to the agreement have

  • Kyoto Protocol Case Study

    1175 Words  | 3 Pages

    Assessing Legislation: The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto protocol was enacted in order to address climate change by implementing emission reduction goals. Seeing as anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are a systemic world environmental problem, any individual act has a global effect and; therefore, international cooperation is necessary in order to address the climate change issue in any region. Furthermore, although developed countries have and are contributing the most to greenhouse gas emissions

  • The Pros And Cons Of The Kyoto Protocol

    1126 Words  | 3 Pages

    Description of The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol was developed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 and came into full force on the 16th of February 2005 in an effort to compact climate change (“Kyoto Protocol Reference Manual,” 2008). By targeting green house gas emissions, the Kyoto Protocol created an effort to “promote sustainable development (“Kyoto Protocol To The United Nations,” 1998).” The protocol’s goal was to reduce green house gas emissions from 1990 by 4.2% by 2008-2012, which 37 developed

  • Pros And Cons Of The Kyoto Protocol

    1196 Words  | 3 Pages

    “The Kyoto Protocol – Success, Challenges and Failures” Kyoto - international agreement Global warming is the phenomenon where excess carbon dioxide acts as a blanket to trap heat and warm the planet. Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, are major causes of global warming (UCSUSA). Since the 1950s, there has been an observed steady increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration that is primarily caused by human activity (Holland 2015). As part of the international

  • The Kyoto Protocol: Protocol To The United Nations Framework Convention On Climate Change

    951 Words  | 2 Pages

    Initiatives to reduce global warming The Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), aimed at fighting global warming to lessen climate change. The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’’ The Protocol was initially adopted on 11th of December

  • Session Initiation Protocol

    1094 Words  | 3 Pages

    Session Initiation Protocol Introduction Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling protocol used for establishing multimedia communication session over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. SIP was originally designed by Mark Handley and Henning Schulzrinne in the year 1996. Latest version of SIP is specified in RFC 3261 from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Network Working Group. SIP is a request response protocol i.e. it deals with request from clients and responses from server

  • User Datagram Protocol

    988 Words  | 2 Pages

    User Datagram Protocol is one of the transport layer protocol which offers limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between hosts. Data is further subdivided into data grams for transmission across the hosts. UDP does not allow retransmission of the damaged or lost packets and there is no acknowledgement for the packet which has been sent. DGRAM_SOCK is the type of socket used for transmission of data. Unlike TCP, however, UDP does not provide the service of dividing a message into packets

  • File Transfer Protocol

    1110 Words  | 3 Pages

    interaction of computers and networks is the protocol. According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, a protocol is essentially a set of rules that define how computers communicate with other computers over a network (Merriam-Webster). There are many protocols that presently exist (e.g. HyperText Transfer Protocol, Internet Protocol), but one of the most useful protocols to users who have the desire of sharing files with one another may just be the File Transfer Protocol, or FTP. This paper is designed to explain

  • Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

    1335 Words  | 3 Pages

    continues to grow today. On December 1997, countries set up an international treaty , the United Nation Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) that set up a plan for how to reduce climate change.the plan was called Kyoto Protocol was set up in Kyoto, Japan. The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005 ,under the agreement countries decide to cut their yearly emission as measured in the six greenhouse gases. (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change).The goal was the countries would reduce

  • Communication Protocols and Network Devices

    1010 Words  | 3 Pages

    method of communication between themselves in order to relay the information to the correct destination. The communication protocols are a set of standards that tell different hardware and software how to transfer data elements between them. When working with the OSI model, the protocols will govern communication between entities on the same reference model layer. Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify

  • Characteristics and Challenges of Developing Multicast Routing Protocol

    1377 Words  | 3 Pages

    multicast routing protocols, like the dynamically changing network topology, limitation of network scalability. There are different types of protocols like unicast protocols [1], [2], cluster based protocols [3] In this paper we discuss about multicast routing for vehicular Ad hoc network which is different from other Ad Hoc networks [4]. Generally there are two types of multicast routing protocols in wireless networks. Tree-based multicast routing protocol, mesh based routing protocol [5]-[8]. In the