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    AYL Question Set 4 Lesson 5: How are ionic and covalent bonding similar? How are they different? You should discuss how they bond and what the major differences are in their nomenclature (the way they are named). Covalent and ionic are two forms of atomic bonds both of which differ in their structure and properties. Firstly, it should be made clear that an atom’s desire is to achieve stability. Most atoms by nature are not balanced electrically. They achieve balance by sharing or transferring their

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    Properties of Ionic and Covalent Bonds Explained Within the last unit of Chemistry, the cause of ionic and covalent properties was revealed. The true predictor of the compound lies in the bonds that take place. Normally within an ionic bond there is a non-metal and a metal element bonded together. During the bonding elements completely transfer valence electrons between atoms. The metal within the bond loses the few electrons that it has in the outer-most shell which then causes the metal to

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    The Importance of Water

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    atoms are smaller the smallest atom there is, in fact, and they rest on both sides of the larger oxygen atom at an angle of 105°. When the hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen, they each give away their single electron and form what is known as a covalent bond. Because electrons are more attracted to the positively charged oxygen atom, the two hydrogen's become slightly positively charged (they give away their negative charge) and the oxygen atom becomes negatively charged. This separation between

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    water, so must be dissolved in ethanol before being treated with any aqueous solutions. Nucleophilic substitution is a reaction in which an electron-donor atom in a molecule is eliminated, and replaced by another which will form a stronger covalent bond in the concerned molecule. Primary halogenoalkanes will undergo nucleophilic substitution with the following mechanism (SN2): Nu – Nucleophile X – Halogen atom A nucleophile is an atom/molecule, which has a lone pair of electrons

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    Investigating Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons, one from each atom in a single bond, to form electron pairs, usually making their outermost shells up to eight electrons by this means. This would make them more stable, less reactive and an electronic structure like a noble gas. They are most frequently formed between pairs of non-metallic elements. Non-metallic elements usually have from four to eight electrons in their outermost shells, the so-called

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    Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding is involved when the atoms of an element chemically combine to make their outer shells full and to make the atoms stable. The first type of bonding you can get is ionic bonding. Electrons are transferred from one atom to another to try and create full outer shells, this gain and loss of electrons on the atoms results in positive and negative ions. In these compounds you get electrostatic force, this is the force/attraction that occurs

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    Atoms

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    The beginning student of chemistry must have a knowledge of the theory which forms the basis for our understanding of chemistry and he must acquire this knowledge before he has the mathematical background required for a rigorous course of study in quantum mechanics. The present approach is designed to meet this need by stressing the physical or observable aspects of the theory through an extensive use of the electronic charge density. The manner in which the negative charge of an atom or a molecule

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    and why they are important in our bodies. Proteins ======== Proteins are polymers of amino acids that are joined head-to-tail in a long chain that is then folded into a three-dimensional structure unique to each type of protein. The covalent linkage between two adjacent amino acids in a protein (or polypeptide) chain is called a peptide bond. There are twenty amino acids that make up proteins. Each amino acid has a typical generic structure as depicted in the diagram 1, the only

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    Electrolytes

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    electricity as solids. These solid electrolytes have ions that can move and carry charges without solvents. There are two ways to be able to have ions that are able to conduct electricity, the dissociation of Ionic Compounds, and the Ionization of Polar Covalent Molecular Substances. The Dissociation of Ionic Compounds is where particles are ionically (electrically) bonded together. They already made out of cations and anions, but in their solid state the ions are locked into position in their crystal structure

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    This is due to the electronegativity of the halogen atoms. Electronegativity is the measure of how strongly an atom in a compound attaches electron in a bond. The greater the difference in the electronegativity of two atoms, the more polar is the covalent bond between the two atoms. So in a carbon halogen bond the halogen is more electronegative than carbon. Consequently the bond between them is polarized so the halogen atom is slightly negative. Electronegativity values E.G. C 2.5

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