Evolution suggests that life began as relatively small and simple organism and developed into various complex organisms today. Charles Darwin proposed his Theory of Evolution, forming the foundation of evolutionary biology. He suggested that the origins of new life and evolution are caused by natural selection over successive generations. It allows differential reproduction of genotypes. There are five principles drawn upon the observation and assumption of evolution, which are reproductive potential, constancy of number, struggle for existence, individual differences and inheritance of traits.
According to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, differences in species are caused by continuous and accumulative small changes over a long period of time. The development of high heels works in a similar way. Over the centuries, high heels were gradually transformed from a product of the patriarchal society1 into a fashion design item. There exist different types and different appearances of high heels. Although high heels are non-living things, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is applicable to describe the changes of them regarding the five characteristics of evolution.
The aim of this essay is to demonstrate how to apply Darwin’s Theory of Evolution to the development of high heels. This essay begins by explaining the evolution of the high heel. It will then focus on application of five characteristics of evolution.
Evolution of high heels
Being a type of footwear, high heels mark the class, social status and personality of individuals as what the shoes in general function. In ancient times dated from 1000 BC, high heels provided a high social status. Nowadays, high heels are one of the fashionable items.
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... Meaning of High Heels? [Internet]. [cited 2011 Oct 24]. Available from:
4. Darwin, C. 1959. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: J. Murray.
5. History of High Heels [Internet]. [cited 2011 Oct 24]. Available from:
6. Gad S. Why are high heels so enticing? [Internet]. [cited 2011 Oct 24]. Available from:
7. E.O. Smith High heels and evolution, Psychology, Evolution & Gender 1.3 December 1999 pp.245-277, Journal 30
8. Hillary J. Less talk, more talk: An evolutionary motive for wearing high heels, St. Ambrose University.
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