Essay about Testing Chimpanzees for Social Learning Analysis

Essay about Testing Chimpanzees for Social Learning Analysis

Length: 1368 words (3.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Understanding the cumulative process of cultural evolution across species, has been in the focus of recent research. This interest is motivated by the search for the evolutionary origins of the human capacity for culture that is also apparent in many other studied species such as wolves, dolphins, guppies and apes (Tomasello et al., 1993). Research in cross cultural patterns of social learning brings us closer to understanding the underlying aspects of cognition that varies across species and thus is responsible for the cultural differentiation among different species (Byrne et al., 2004).
The underlying process of cultural differentiation is named cultural transmission (or enculturation) that is present when animals acquire traits and skills that they would not normally learn from individuals of their own species who raise them (van Schaik & Burkart, 2011). This ability to transmit information onto successive generations depends on innovation, creating novel responses to the environment and the ability to imitate other’s behavior (Lehmann et al., 2010).
Although the definition of culture is widely debated among disciplines, Whiten et al. (1999) suggests that it is defined in contrast with the transmission of behavior through genes. He proposes that when cultural traditions are passed on to generations by some kind of social learning, culture emerges. Therefore, the capacity to imitate others and solve novel problems allows animals to create culture that is “a population-level characteristic” (Whiten et al., 1999, pp.2). Well-known examples of cultural transmission are the sweet potato washing Japanese macaques and different dialects of bird songs (Byrne et al., 2004).
The most significant and extensive cultural variation has b...


... middle of paper ...


... 209-216.
Lehmann, L., Feldman, M. W., & Kaeuffer, R. (2010). Cumulative cultural dynamics and the coevolution of cultural innovation and transmission: an ESS model for panmictic and structured populations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology,23(11), 2356-2369.
Tomasello, M., Kruger, A. C., & Ratner, H. H. (1993). Cultural learning.Behavioral and brain sciences, 16, 495-495.
van Schaik, C. P., & Burkart, J. M. (2011). Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1008-1016.
Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., ... & Boesch, C. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399(6737), 682-685.
Whiten, A., Horner, V., & De Waal, F. B. (2005). Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature, 437(7059), 737-740.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Chimpanzees On The Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve Essay

- Goodall’s team initially encountered difficulties when attempting to study the chimpanzees on the Gombe Stream Chimpanzee Reserve. The chimpanzees were very distant and afraid of the new company. It is clear that it took quite a significant amount of time before Goodall could closely observe the chimpanzees without scaring them away. Goodall attempted to get closer observation in the beginning, but as the chimpanzees realized she was getting close they quickly fled. It was only after Goodall decided to go alone to the peak she often visited, that the chimps were less apprehensive of her presence....   [tags: Chimpanzee, Jane Goodall]

Strong Essays
1253 words (3.6 pages)

Similarities And Differences Between Chimpanzees And Chimpanzees Essay

- Introduction: Common chimpanzees are a specie of the apes and the evidence shown in their traits show that they are related to humans. Chimpanzees are covered in black hair except for their faces, ears, palms of their hands, and the soles of their feet. Both males and females chimps have a white beard and young chimps may have a whiter complexion compared to the older chimps. As the males and females chimps age, their forehead is often bald and their back becomes gray. The size and appearance of chimpanzees can vary, but male chimpanzees are often larger than the females....   [tags: Human, Chimpanzee, Common Chimpanzee, Hominidae]

Strong Essays
1518 words (4.3 pages)

Essay on Similarities Between Human And Chimpanzees

- Through many centuries of passionate research and dedication on behalf of scientists worldwide, the general consensus among them is that human’s and ape’s are overwhelmingly similar. Years of research, comparison and evaluation have allowed for scientists and science enthusiasts to draw conclusions about not only the similarities between human’s and chimps, but how those similarities translate to similarities and differences between human’s and their behavior. Despite valid and accurate conclusions being drawn, Marks notes significant examples of scientists incorrectly using apes to draw conclusions between human behavior and differences overall, as seen in his noted examples regarding diffe...   [tags: Brain, Human, Scientific method, Chimpanzee]

Strong Essays
925 words (2.6 pages)

Evaluation Of Social Learning Theory Essay

- Albert Bandura was a pioneer in Social Learning Theory. It includes the concepts of traditional learning theory and the operant conditioning of B. F. Skinner. Bandura believed that behavior is learned from the environment through Observational Learning and mediating processes between stimuli & responses. This paper deliberates an article by Joan E. Grusec She offers an evaluation of Social Learning Theory from a historical perspective by concentrating on Bandura’s research and theory in the 1960s and 1970s....   [tags: Psychology, Social learning theory]

Strong Essays
1349 words (3.9 pages)

Essay on The Social Cognitive Learning Theory

- The social cognitive learning theory focuses on learning in a social setting. Observing the behavior of others develops individual philosophy, proficiency, policy, and procedures. By observing proper conduct modeled by others, individuals apply personal principles to their actions in an effort to achieve desired results (Schunk, 1996, p. 102). Applying the social cognitive learning theory to my personal beliefs requires me to reflect upon the many mentors, leaders, peers, and family members whose conduct inspired me to be who I am....   [tags: Psychology, Learning, Social cognitive theory]

Strong Essays
862 words (2.5 pages)

Essay about Standardized Testing Hinders The Learning Process

- Teachers spend time on the memorization of specific words that will be on the state test, not vocabulary building exercises. Educators have pep rallies that take educational time away from lesson plans and teaching in order to have the students learn cheers expressing how well they are going to do on the state test. Excess teacher and administration time is spent figuring out game plans, not for teaching students, but rather for figuring out how to increase test scores. Meanwhile, when students are truly excited about exploring a topic in depth, they are shut down because there is no time to learn, only time to memorize items that might be on these tests....   [tags: Against Standardized Testing Essays]

Strong Essays
1159 words (3.3 pages)

Chimpanzee Vs. Human Essay

- Do chimpanzees exert human-like qualities. In the essay "Selections from Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe," Jane Goodall explains her studies of the chimpanzees and their human-like qualities. The scientific community does not believe that chimpanzees are like humans in any way. Goodall wants to prove that chimpanzees are more than just a mindless non-human animal; in fact, she believes that chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans and that they are a window to the truth that can never be fully revealed....   [tags: Genetics]

Strong Essays
536 words (1.5 pages)

Testing And Its Effect On Learning Essay

- When people think about testing, most people would agree that it would be a useful tool to assess our familiarity with knowledge. For us students, school tests are most relevant to us in term of its direct effect on our learning. Testing involves applying different tasks, which includes retrieving memory and making judgments in a stressed amount of time. Completing these tasks often seems to improve our learning, as it enhances knowledge retention (Mok & Chan, 2016), but we often ignore problems that are involved in test taking....   [tags: Learning, Psychology, Test method, Anxiety]

Strong Essays
1039 words (3 pages)

The Social-Emotional Aspects of Teaching and Learning Essay

- This essay aims to critically evaluate, compare, contrast and criticize, and integrate theories, strategies and skills from the Humanist, Psychodynamic and Behaviourist perspective. This essay will discuss Maslow, Rogers’, Freudian and Skinner’s approaches to understand how counselling theories may be used by teachers and other staff for supporting children and young people in terms of their social and emotional well-being within the educational context, and the factors that influence their use....   [tags: Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning]

Strong Essays
2500 words (7.1 pages)

The Wrongful Treatment of Chimpanzees Essay

- Jerom, a chimpanzee, was taken from his mother at a young age. Unfortunately, Jerom was part of an experiment and was infected with HIV at the age of two. Jerom spent the duration of his life in the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, which is a federally funded laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia, until he died at the age of 14. He was housed in the Chimpanzee Infectious Disease (CID) building which is isolated from the other housing and research buildings on Yerkes main property. The CID building in which Jerom was kept in was described as a small, windowless box with cement walls and no outdoor access....   [tags: experiments, conditions, sanctuary]

Strong Essays
1003 words (2.9 pages)