Forty years ago, Indonesia was known among scientists of human ecology as a land with exemplary sustainability in its agriculture and industry (Henley 2008: 273). However, a growing and uneven population distribution, large socio-economic inequalities, and a recent history of corrupt governing have led to severe problems in the management of its natural resources (O’Conner 2004: 320). Primarily, this refers to the management of Indonesian rainforests. Globally, tropical rainforests are like carbon sinks, storing 46% of the world’s living terrestrial carbon. Due to this, deforestation causes approximately 25% of the world’s total carbon emissions (Danielson et al. 2008: 349). Indonesia itself has a rapidly depleting supply of rainforests. In the fifty years from 1950 – 2000, Indonesia lost forty-percent of its rainforests, decreasing from 162 million hectares to just 98 million hectares. Current estimates state that from 1996...
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...Causes of Deforestation, Land Economics, 81(2): 145-169
Murray Li, T., 2001. Masyarakat Adat, Difference, and the Limits of Recognition in Indonesia’s Forest Zone, Modern Asian Studies, 35(3): 645-676
O’Conner, C. M., 2004. Effects of Central Decisions on Local Livelihoods in Indonesia: Potential Synergies between the Programs of Transmigration and Industrial Forest Conversion, Population and Environment, 25(4): 319-333
Pagdee, A., Kim, Y., Daugherty, P. J., 2006. What makes Community Forest Management Successful: A meta-Study From Community Forests Throughout the World, Society and Natural Resources, 19(1): 33-52
United Nations. 2011. Indonesia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Indonesia. [Accessed 02 May 11].
World Growth, 2011. The Economic Benefit of Palm Oil to Indonesia, Palm Oil Green Development Campaign, 1-27
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