Essay on South Afric A Developing Middle Income Country

Essay on South Afric A Developing Middle Income Country

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South Africa, known as a developing middle-income country, underwent a peaceful transition from apartheid to a constitutional democracy and considerable social progress has been made. Yet, the health and well-being of most South Africans remain afflicted by the persisting social disparities and inadequate human resources that we are faced with. These factors are not only affected by the healthcare or access to health services but, result from multidimensional and complex factors linked to the social determinants of health, which include a range of social, political, economic, environmental, and cultural factors, including poverty, inequality and lifestyle of the people. For many years, it has been recognised that people with the lowest socio-economic levels in the community have higher deaths and illness rates. Interestingly enough, South Africa faces a quadruple burden of disease which is linked to poverty and deprivation. This correlation between poverty and ill health has been observed throughout the world regardless of whether the major causes of death were from infectious or non-infectious diseases and regardless of how socio-economic position was measured. In South Africa, there exist wide inequalities in the distribution of health and health outcomes. The appropriate responses to South African health care challenges would be to address the social determinants of health as a national priority, strengthen the health care system, and facilitate universal coverage for health care.

Social Epidemiology in South Africa
According to, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (2016), epidemiology is the study that refers to patterns, causes and risk factors of diseases occurring in different groups of people. Social epidemiology is a sub-division ...

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...lity (Keeton, 2014).
Unemployment can be defined as persons between the ages of 15 to 65 who do not have jobs providing them with a salary or wage (StatsSA, 2014). Poverty and inequality accompanies unemployment. Although research reveals that there are more unemployed females than there are males, the individual effects include both physical and psychological in both sexes. (Triegaardt, n.d). Physically the person’s health degenerates due to sleep problems; lack of energy; hypertension; heart disease and kidney disease. Psychological effects include depression, anxiety, stress, anger, loneliness, decreased self-esteem, concentration and personal identity (de Witte & Rothmann, 2012).
As seen in appendix B, the forecasted unemployment rate for South Africa from 2013 to 2017, shows a continuous average increase although there are annual fluctuations.

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