In the Sophistic period of ancient Greece, the Sophists were the first to charge for their services and would teach whatever their students wanted to learn, so long as they could pay. The studies they taught varied greatly and included philosophy, grammar, languages, oration and rhetoric among others. They were skilled in public debate and were known to argue either side of an issue with equal effectiveness, this is one reason they gained the reputation of being deceptive in their reasoning and it also made many of them successful as judiciary speech writers.
Although there was not a specific ideology that all Sophists shared, they leaned toward Relativism and Empiricism and held the belief that ...
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...evident and remain effective in today’s society and educational system.
Crome, Keith. Lyotard and Greek Thought. Gordonsville, VA: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2004.
Gagarin, Michael. Antiphon the Athenian, Oratory, Law and Justice in the Age of the Sophists. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.
Kennedy, George A. Classical Rhetoric and its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Popkin, Richard H, and Avrum Stroll. Philosophy Made Simple, Second Edition, Revised. New York, NY: Broadway Books, 1993.
Rohmann, Chris. A World of Ideas, A Dictionary of Important Theories, Concepts, Beliefs and Thinkers. New York, NY: The Random House Publishing Group, 1999.
Waterfield, Robin. The First Philosophers: The Presocratics and Sophists. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
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