Forests can shape our landscape; they can provide immeasurable appeal to rural and peri-urban areas, defining the inherent landscape character. Furthermore, the significance of design interpretation can facilitate management objectives and outcomes; particularly in proximity to centers of population. Wherein, the community has an affinity, vested interest, general interest or typically a fear of change.
Historic landscape design:
The major influence on the forest landscape was the Forestry Act 1919, and creation of the Forestry Commission (FC); there remit was to create a strategic timber reserve demanded by the war effort. Therein, catalysing a distinct shift and implementation of mass change in land use (agriculture to forestry), restructuring the native forests and species choice (conifer monoculture). Arguably the creation of ‘New Forests’ was reclamation of previously lost natural forest cover. However the methodology adopted was by todays sustainable forest management (SFM) standards, somewhat flawed.
A typical planting scheme would include non-native conifers typically Sicta Spruce (SS) or Lodgepoll Pine (LP); originating from North American sources, layed out in geometrical shapes as shown in image 1 Unnatural geometric shapes in the landscape.
During the 1960’s more emphasis was placed on landscape issues, with the rise of the global environmental movement. Methods of mitigation and inclusion we recognize today; for example origination of environmental impact assessment (EIA) during this period. Two guiding principles were adopted forests should reflect the natural land form and patterns; and visual designs adopted in other fields should be ...
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...ent's response to the independent panel on forestry's final report. The national archives.
Forestry Commission Scotland. (n.d.). Urban Woodland Design, Engaging with the community. [Online] Available from:
Arnstien, S. (1969). A ladder of participation in the USA. Journal of the Royal Planning Institute. April, 176-182.
Bell, S and Apostol, D. (2008). Designing Sustainable Forest landscapes. London: Taylor and Francis: 105.
Aarhus convention, (1998). Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters. Denmark.
Weldon, S. (2004) Social Science in Forestry. Public participation and partnership: a review of Forestry Commission practice and governance in a changing political and economic context. Forestry Commission. Edinburgh: 12.
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