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Was Stalinism Inevitable?

- Was Stalinism Inevitable. Introduction "Let's replace Long Live Leninism with Long Live Stalinism!” This declaration by a communist leader and staunch Stalin supporter Lazar Kaganovich perhaps best summarizes the popularity and personality cult of Joseph Stalin which overtook and in some cases, replaced the precepts of Marxism-Leninism. Although many see Stalinism as the natural heir and iteration of Leninism, others see it as a gross deviation from the principles of Marxism-Leninism, deeming Stalinism as all those steps and policies that lead to the formation of a society based on the vision, principles and ideals of Joseph Stalin, while maintaining a threadbare association or even using as...   [tags: communist leaders]

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Everyday Stalinism

- When most people hear the name Joseph Stalin, they usually associate the name with a man who was part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was responsible for the deaths of millions of people. He was willingly to do anything to improve the power of the Soviet Union’s economy and military, even if it meant executing tens of millions of innocent people (Frankforter, A. Daniel., and W. M. Spellman 655). In chapter three of Sheila Fitzpatrick’s book, Everyday Stalinism, she argues that since citizens believed the propaganda of “a radiant future” (67), they were able to be manipulated by the Party in the transformation of the Soviet Union....   [tags: Literary Analysis, Sheila Fitzpatrick]

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Stalinism and Jews

- Modern World History Joseph Stalin led the Socialist Soviet Union in the “Revolution from Above,” a movement to centralize the government and transform society without popular participation . Because Stalin’s radical goals were destructive for the populace to attain, his legitimacy was based on the credibility of his ideological authority . In protection of that conviction, Stalin was in constant fear of competitive initiative and philosophy. Stalin subjected society and culture to strict party surveillance and control, issuing pro-socialist, xenophobic propaganda, censoring literature, art, and media, and launching anti-religious campaigns ....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Lenin Laid the Foundation for Stalinism

- In order to establish whether Lenin did, indeed lay the foundation for Stalinism, two questions need to be answered; what were Lenin’s plans for the future of Russia and what exactly gave rise to Stalinism. Official Soviet historians of the time at which Stalin was in power would have argued that each one answers the other. Similarly, Western historians saw Lenin as an important figure in the establishment of Stalin’s socialist state. This can be partly attributed to the prevailing current of pro-Stalin anti-Hitler sentiments amongst westerners until the outbreak of the cold war....   [tags: Joseph Stalin Essays]

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The Progression from Leninism to Stalinism

- The question of whether or not Stalinism was a logical continuation of Leninism is a difficult one. Stalinism did take significantly more drastic measures than Leninism did. There were differences in policy. But in spite of these, Stalinism still found its basis in Leninism. Even Trotsky, a friend of Lenin and a staunch opponent of Stalin, grudgingly admits that "Stalinism did issue from Bolshevism" (Trotsky). Stalin's policy of socialism in one country, his use of terror to eliminate opposition, and his suppression of democracy and the soviets were all characteristics of Lenin well before they were characteristic of Stalin....   [tags: Joseph Stalin Essays]

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Stalinism

- Stalinism How far was Stalinism the outcome of Leninist political practice. The political system which existed in the Soviet Union under Stalin was a system of terror. The purges of the 1930s sent millions of Russians to their deaths or to the Gulags, the population was scared of the secret police, the NKVD, the forced collectivization of agriculture had wiped out a part of Russian society, the Kulaks. The show trials of the thirties had firmly established Stalin as the leader of the Soviet Union....   [tags: Papers]

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Inside a Totalitarian Regime: Key features of Stalinism

- ... The Purges symbolized this permanent witch-hunt affecting every strata of the society. Indeed, high-ranked Party members such as Grigory Zinoviev were accused of treason and the assassination of Politburo member Sergei Kirov in 1934 marked the start of the Great Purge which ended in 1940. Zinoviev and other dozens of Party members were tried during the highly publicized Moscow trials and sentenced to death. Eventually, during these fifteen years millions of bureaucrats, military commands, and ordinary citizens were arrested....   [tags: soviet rule, notorious dictators]

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Animal Farm by George Orwell

- Published in 1945, the book,” Animal Farm”, by George Orwell, an allegory of stalinism, had an enormous impact on the world of literature, even decades after it was written. However, like all controversial books, “Animal Farm” drew both praise and heavy criticism, causing one man, John Reed to write a book called,” Snowball’s Chance” in response to Orwell’s criticism of communism, However, like all controversial books, “Animal Farm” drew both praise and heavy criticism, causing one man, John Reed to write a book called,” Snowball’s Chance” in response to Orwell’s criticism of communism....   [tags: allegory of stalinism]

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Evaluation of the Usefulness of Selected Examples of Foucault's Theory

- Within this paper, I shall evaluate the usefulness of selected examples of Foucault’s theories from a feminist perspective. To begin, a short introduction will outline the era in which Foucault wrote, as this has been seen as influential to his work, inspiring him to move away from the former ideological ways of thinking about the world (Taylor and Vintges 2004, Mills 1997). I shall then go on to consider the changing nature of feminism, which has moved on from viewing patriarchy and men as the oppressors of women, and is persistently developing more complex analyses of the ways in which gendered power relations operate....   [tags: stalinism, michel foucault, feminism]

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Communism and its Impact on the Postwar World

- Ted Grant was one of the leading Western Trotskyist theorists for decades, and many of his predictions about the Soviet Union, China and the revolutions in the developing world turned out to be remarkably prescient. Even though, Trotskyism lacked a mass party of working class base in any country. In reality, Stalinism was a counterrevolutionary movement that suppressed the masses and even the Communist Parties in favor of a bureaucratic police state. Stalin’s Russia was a “military police-state” that offered a “ready-made Bonapartist model” to underdeveloped countries like China, Cuba, Algeria, Burma, Vietnam and many others, but it was not Marxist since none of these regime sand ruling part...   [tags: imperialism, stalinism, ted grant, communism]

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George Orwell and the Influence of Stalinism on His Works

- George Orwell, born under the name Eric Arthur Blair, was born in British India in the year 1903. When Orwell turned one, his mother moved him and his older sister to England, where about four years later, he attended a private school in which he learned about the English class system. This school, a Roman Catholic convent, was run by recently exiled French nuns. Although Orwell’s mother wanted her children to grow up and learn in a public school, the family could not afford the fees. The only option for Orwell was to get scholarship money in order to pay the fees....   [tags: politics, writing, communism]

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The Migration Into Stalinist Russia

- The Migration Into Stalinist Russia In the years of the Great Depression, an unheard of migration of American citizens moved to Russia in search of jobs. These people were kept from returning back from the United States because Moscow would not allow it. Tim Tzouliadis describes their life and struggle in communist Russia in the book “The Forsaken.” Most of this book discusses Soviet-American relations and is meant to open people’s eyes to what had been done to these people who went over their during this time....   [tags: Great Depression, Migration, American History]

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Stalinist Revolution

- In the Soviet Union during the 1920s and 1930s a second revolution occurred within the government, economy, and culture. This second revolution is known as the Stalinist Revolution. The Stalinist Revolution brought with it many reforms that continued to change the state from the Tsarist Regime. The new communist government also caused many political changes. Within the Stalinist Revolution there were many political changes. Along with the political changes there was also another revamp of the economic policy of the USSR....   [tags: Russian History]

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The Stalinist Terror and "Sofia Petrovna"

- In the book Sofia Petrovna, the author Lydia Chukovskaya writes about Sofia Petrovna and her dreadful experiences as a widowed mother during the Russian Stalinist Terror of the 1930s. There were four basic results of the Russian Stalinist Terror: first, it was a way of keeping people in order; second, it kept Stalin in power and stopped revolutions from forming, made people work harder to increase the output of the economy, and separated families as well as caused deaths of many innocent people due to false charges....   [tags: Asian History]

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Soviet Family Code and Women During the Stalinist Regime

- The use of mass terror was one of the most representative characteristic of the Stalinist regime. The gulag was the embodiment of the constant and large scale use of fear by the Bolsheviks to control the population. Among the numerous accounts on the life in the gulag, Varlam Shalamov’s Kolyma Tales and Fedor Mochulsky’s Gulag Boss stand out by their treatment of the question. Indeed, Shalamov, a writer who spent 17 years in the gulag depicts a cold and implacable environment which when it doesn’t physically kills you, sucks up all humanity out of yourself until you are turned into a soulless being....   [tags: mass terror, the gulag]

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Animal Farm and Stalinist Russia

- Animal Farm and Stalinist Russia In his book "Animal Farm" George Orwell gives a very vivid and accurate account of what happened in Russia after Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. Being an allegory, most of the characters and events have a parallel in Stalinist Russia. Minor characters in the story also symbolize things that are very relevant to the history of Russia. Mr. Jones is the embodiment of the old government, of the monarchy where the autocrat takes all without giving anything; he is the last of the Czars....   [tags: Animal Farm Essays]

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World War Two and Stalinist Terror

- World War Two and Stalinist Terror We can count many causes of World War 2 - economic problems, nationalism, the rise of dictatorships in certain countries. Some believe that many of the causes were due to problems left unsolved by World War 1. But the three main causes were: 1. The Prussian Militarism – developed in 200 years of history, it was the force that made Germany so powerful, and made it possible for a man like Adolph Hitler to gain total control of it....   [tags: WWII World War 2 Essays]

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The Great Terror in Russia

- ... Bolsheviks Zinoviev, Kamenev and their associates were accused of conspiring against Stalin and the government, with each confessing to their supposed crimes, which were then broadcast around the world. It was later discovered that these confessions were forced after long months of psychological abuse and cruel acts of torture. As Stalin’s paranoia grew, the party began eradicating itself of undesirables. Of the two million people that were repressed during that two-year period at the height of the Great Terror, over half were members of the party at the time of their arrest, making that 90% of his former Communist party....   [tags: stalinist, dictatorship, purge]

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Morality and Politics in Nazi Germany and Stalinist Russia

- On November 1923, German army veteran and leader of an extremist party, Adolf Hitler climbed onto a table and fired his pistol. “The National Socialist revolution has begun!” Hitler’s rise to power is one of the most significant events of our century. People today still debate how and why Hitler’s totalitarian dictatorship in the 1930’s was such a big success with support of many Germans. At the time of Hitler’s rise, Germans were in a rough time of sorrow and unemployment. In order to stabilize the economy many workers were needed to reconstruct highways, houses and forests....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Tension on the Korean Peninsula – South Korean Policy Towards North Korea

- North Korea, formally known as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a relic of the Cold War and the world’s last remaining totalitarian Stalinist dictatorship. Arguably the most secretive state in the world, North Korea poses a unique set of challenges to the world, especially to its democratic and capitalist neighbor, South Korea, formally known as the Republic of Korea (ROK). As one of the last remnants of the Cold War era, North Korea remains an anomaly of the international system due to its unpredictable nature and disregard for international norms....   [tags: Kim Jong Il, Stalinist, dictator]

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Commentary on David Brandenberger´s National Bolshevism Stalinist Mass Culture and the Formation of Modern Russian National Identity

- NATIONAL BOLSHEVISM STALINIST MASS CULTURE AND THE FORMATION OF MODERN RUSSIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY, 1931-1956 DAVID BRANDENBERGER In the beginning of this book of the history of the Russian people, we find that most Russian’s had no real identity of who they were or from where they descended. (P.11) They were just a people simply trying to make a living for their families not really caring where they came from or most important where the government wanted them to go. Sure they would, like most of us, like to have known where they descended from or who their ancestors were, if they were great or of noble decent, for some kind of recognition to their identity....   [tags: Identity, Society]

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Communist Philosophy: Stalinist Russia

- Communist philosophy is the foundation of communism, and is the rubric for Communist rulers such as Joseph Stalin; who went against communist philosophy to create a “perfect” communist society containing proper economic and agricultural means. Joseph Stalin contributed to this by conquering, instead of communism exploding over the world by choice; and also by not letting the proletariat rule. Stalin departed from Communist Philosophy by becoming a dictator, instead of the Central Committee ruling in the name of the proletariat; and also by using military force in order to expand his rule....   [tags: marxist movement, politics]

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Russia During The Twentieth Century

- The studies of Russia during the twentieth-century have been engulfed by a cloud mysticism and intrigue, since it has been characterised by intensely politicised agendas, creating a vast array of division within its history. Conflicts of interests arise on the approaches in regard to twentieth century Russia were a traditionalist approach along the lines of the totalitarian school emerges in opposition to the revisionist as well as the liberal modernist 's style. These debates have existed since the initial birth of the revolution, in terms of it being seen as a coup or just form of natural progressive redevelopment....   [tags: Soviet Union, Communism, Russia, Vladimir Lenin]

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The Political Regime Under Joseph Stalin

- The term Stalinism is most commonly used to specify the political regime under Joseph Stalin. Stalinism therefore covers the policies, reforms and regulations implemented within the Stalinist period of 1929-53. The profound imprint of Stalinism could be seen in multiple facets of the Soviet society, including economy, agriculture, politics and culture, as the ultimate modifications to such areas allowed for Stalin to transition Russia towards the new goal of ‘socialism in one country’. The effects of Stalinism however proved devastating for the Russian populace as through the use of manipulation and terror, these goals were attempted and achieved....   [tags: Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, Great Purge, Russia]

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Popular political Ideologies in the 20th Century: A brief Study of popular 20th Century political trends.

- POLITICAL SCIENCE 101 Popular political Ideologies in the 20th Century A brief Study of popular 20th Century political trends. [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]   Political ideologies (P.I) have existed since the dawn of human Civilization; they have been fought over, discredited, re-approached, and fought over again....   [tags: Political Science]

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The Reign of the Man of Steel, Joseph Stalin

- During World War II alone, Joseph Stalin killed an estimated 20 to 60 million people. Born in the late 1870s, Stalin began his rise to power at 43, and by 45 had betrayed Vladimar Lenin to eventually become the leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin was a cruel man, even killing an artist for not potraying him as he wanted to be. He also made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to keep other Communist parties pro-Stalin and pro-Soviet. Stalin, today, is seen as one of the most sadistic leaders in the past century, even surpassing Adolf Hitler to some people....   [tags: leader, communist, power]

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Stalin 's Economic Impact On Russia

- Stalin’s initial economic impact on Russia was greatly significant as he introduced a number of 5-year-plans that improved the steel and coal industry and provided more jobs. Industrialisation was needed in the USSR, and Stalin turned a mostly backward, illiterate society into a major power in just a few years . Many workers at the time would have seen Stalin as a significant figure due to his plans and actions to modernise Russia as this meant more jobs would be available and they can be more self sufficient as a nation....   [tags: Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, Red Army, Russia]

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Ivan Denisovich

- The crimes of Stalinism in Europe are endless. The experience of the people who lived under the Soviet regime after the end of World War II lived in a time of terror, hopelessness and misery. For Soviet citizens and the prisoners life was miserable. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a short novel written by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, is a story about the one day in the life of a person caught between the chaos of the war and the faceless entity that controls their lives. The story takes place somewhere in Siberia in 1951 at a “special” (forced labor) camp....   [tags: Social Issues, Poverty, War]

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Joseph Stalin

- Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1954. He is widely recognized as a dictator, an oppressor, and a ruthless ruler who took the Soviet Union from economic shambles to a superpower, but with the high cost of human sacrifice and his paranoia of opposition. Stalin saw himself as the natural successor of Leninism-Marxism, but in actuality he created a system of his own which did not go according to the philosophy of Karl Marx and Engels. Stalin’s early political career began just like everyone else who gained prominence in the Bolshevik takeover of the Russian Empire....   [tags: Russian History, Politics]

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Transition from Communism to Democracy: A Case Study of Russia’s Democratic Transition

- Transition from Communism to Democracy: A Case Study of Russia’s Democratic Transition Communism is a political system that has been used time and time again, where all property is publicly owned and people are paid according to their needs and abilities. Many countries used this political system in the years following 1917–such as Croatia and Russia–and is still used today. The ideology of Communism or more specifically Marxism is shown in the book The Communist Manifesto. Karl Marx, writer of The Communist Manifesto, stated that ““The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.” Alluding to these class struggles eventually leading to a grand revolution....   [tags: Government, Croatia, Soviets]

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Stalin And Stalin 's Theory Of Government Control Over Industry And Agriculture

- Some say that Stalinism can be said to be a continuation and development for Leninism. Stalin pulled his regime away from the that could be a continuation from Leninism would be the idea of government control over industry and agriculture. This could also relate to the idea of taking control over the working class and the workers. One idea that stayed the same would be the economic policy. Although Stalin did stray a little far from the New Economic Policy, he did use the idea temporary. Another feature common to both Stalin and Lenin was their attempts to eliminate any democratic or representative forms of government....   [tags: Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev]

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A Comparative Study Of Texts And The Composer 's Contexts

- A comparative study of texts and the composer’s contexts demonstrates similar intertextual perspectives of universal issues regardless of the time written. Both Fritz Lang and George Orwell lived in times of wars that were a result of extreme political regimes. Lang specifically created his silent film Metropolis in 1927 in response to German expressionism values including art, architecture and emotion, in post-World War One Germany. Orwell wrote his dystopic 1948 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) after he was horrified by the control the government had over society in World War Two and Stalin’s communist Russia....   [tags: Nineteen Eighty-Four, Communism, George Orwell]

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Animal Farm : The Quintessential Depiction Of A Communist Society

- Animal Farm: The Quintessential Depiction of a Communist Society The Russian Revolution of 1917 marked the end of human freedom in the Soviet Union. Prior to the Revolution, which is considered one of the most significant events of the 20th century, Tsar Nicholas II ruled over Russia. During his ruling, the Russian people suffered through inordinate poverty and inescapable famine. However, after the Russian people rose up against their government, when Joseph Stalin came into power, Russia’s government became much worse than the one which they had overthrown....   [tags: Soviet Union, Communism, Russia, Totalitarianism]

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One Day in The Life Of Ivan Denisovich

- Alexander Solzhenitsyn was a Russian and a soviet historian, novelist and a dramatist who used his form of writing to help in making the world aware of the GULAG (Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey), which was a government agency that administered the main soviet forced labor camp systems during Joseph Stalin ruling period. It was first inaugurated by the soviet decree in 1930 and hence after that it passed through a series of organizational changes where the secret police took control of it....   [tags: russian historian, stalin, nazy germany]

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A Brief History of The Soviet Union

- ... Education in the Soviet Union was the foundation for future generations of communist. The transition from a monarchy to a socialist state was a bitter change for the people and made it hard for the Bolsheviks to keep under control. Thus, education was crucial to raise younger generations with communist ideologies and to preserve a long lasting communist regime in Russia. The after effects of the world war and Soviet invasion of neighboring countries forced millions of children to be self raised and wander aimlessly to strive for a living....   [tags: stalin, communist party, Bolsheviks]

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Working Class Protest in East Germany

- Working Class Protest in East Germany The troubles in East Germany in June 1953 reached a peak on June 17th, when there were mass demonstrations and a General Strike throughout the German Democratic Republic. (G.D.R.). There has been many reasons cited for these protests, but it is perhaps possible to bring them down into two categories. Firstly, the long-term causes. These include the raising of work quotas, and the subsequent reduction of worker income. As well as this was the program of collective farms in the countryside....   [tags: Papers]

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Rise And Fall Of Communism

- Rise and fall of ‘communism’ in Russia Communism is defined as "a system of political and economic organization in which property is owned by the community and all citizens share in the enjoyment of the common wealth, more or less according to their need." In 1917 the rise of power in the Marxist-inspired Bolsheviks in Russia along with the consolidation of power by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, the word communism came to mean a totalitarian system controlled by a single political party. This came to justify that the means of production is controlled and the wealth is distributed with the goal of producing a classless or possibly a stateless society....   [tags: Soviet Union, Communism, Cold War, Russia]

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Russia 's Culture As A Whole For The Next Millennium

- Introduction The Finno-Ugric and Eastern Slavs were some of the first people to inhabit Russia. The Vargarian chieftain Rurik established several areas in 862. Veps, Votes and Illmen Slavs were some of the first people to live in these areas. This is considered to be the very beginning of Russia. Christianity was adopted in 988 from the Byzantine Empire by the Slavic and the Byzantine cultures which were important in defining Russia’s culture as a whole for the next millennium. Russia exhibits many continuities of social structure with its tsarist, political culture, and Soviet past....   [tags: Soviet Union, Russia, World War II, Cold War]

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The Rise of Stalin

- The Soviet leaders in 1924 were professional revolutionaries and dedicated Westernizers. As such, they were very conscious of the French Revolution and its development; it served as a model for them. The great fear of many communists was that the Russian Revolution would end in "Bonapartism," that is, in a military dictatorship under a charismatic general. In 1922-1924, the role of Napoleon was most clearly filled by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky was a dynamic personality, and his support base was his creation, the Red Army....   [tags: Russian History]

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Introduction And Background Of Alexander Solzhenitsyn

- "For the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature." - From the Nobel Prize Citation for Alexander Solzhenitsyn, October 8, 1970. In mid-century - 1962 to be exact - a bright new talent appeared with stunning suddenness on the literary horizon. Alexander Solzhenitsyn, together with his epoch-making work, One Day In The Life Of Ivan Denisovich, flared up like a supernova in the Eastern skies and incandesced the Western skies as well. Today Solzhenitsyn remains the most impressive figure in world literature of the latter half of the 20th century....   [tags: Russian Author Literature]

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Joseph Stalin

- Joseph Stalin is a polarizing figure. Decades after his death his legacy still continues to create debate about his tumultuous years as the leader of the Soviet Union. This is evident throughout the four documents while some praise Stalin as impeccable others criticize his policies and lack of political, economic, and social progress during his regime. Even though Stalin was behind various violations of human rights he was able to maintain the Soviet Union during a time of turmoil both domestically and internationally as a result he has earned notoriety as a great leader and advocate for Marxist ideology....   [tags: Joseph Stalin Essays]

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Jumping the Shark: An Explanation of Why it Was Ultimately During Brezhnev’s Regime That the Soviet Union Began to Collapse

- The Soviet Union (USSR): one of the most feared and powerful countries in the 20th century; a union known, largely, for its highly centralized government and, usually, its totalitarian rulers like Josef Stalin. The USSR remained a powerhouse republic through the Second World War and the Cold War; however its prosperity began to suffer as the turn of the century neared. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the USSR began its descent into what ultimately became the separation of the union and the independence of states such as Russia, Moldova, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, among others....   [tags: Soviet History ]

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The European Parliament and The Notion of a Common European Historical Memory

- ... Since identity is socially constructed, there is a link between identity and power. Specific discourses can be used by those in power to create a certain kind of social reality. Michel Foucault has argued that discourses regulate what can be said and what is considered true or false. Those in power are in control of information and consequently the stories told. Therefore individuals in society “act in certain ways based on discourses that are visible to them.” Foucault states that “for something to be considered a fact, it must be subjected to a thorough process of ratification by those in positions of authority.” The construction of knowledge in a particular way has therefore implica...   [tags: internal policies, historical memory]

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Spanish Civil War: The Struggle Between Fascism and Communism

- The Spanish civil war of 1936-1939 was an important conflict in Spain’s history. This war was initiated by a military revolt led by General Francisco Franco on the 17 July 1936 and ended with Franco’s victory on the 1 April, 1939. This victory resulted in the replacement of the Second Spanish Republic with the conservative dictatorship of Franco. This conflict triggered the clash of the various cultures and ideologies within Spain. One important example of an ideological clash was that of Communism versus Fascism....   [tags: World History ]

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Travel and Tourism in Stalin’s Russia

- The nature of travel and tourism in Stalin’s Russia presents modern historians with a unique and utterly ambiguous concept. Travel and tourism under the Soviet emerged as a strictly regimented pursuit, which in line with the rest of Stalin’s Russia, came under heavy scrutiny and strict control, though it was strongly encouraged from the 1920s onwards and became officially regarded as a type of sport in 1949. The seemingly simple practices of leisure and travel under the Stalinist model presents readers with a paradox; as a system based on the labor theory of value, the USSR emphasized production as the foundation of wealth, personal worth, and the path to a society of abundance for all....   [tags: Russian Studies]

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Animal Farm: Orwell's True Intent

- Animal Farm: Orwell’s True Intent A wise boar, Old Major, expresses a dream of a world where animals live with no human oppression to the rest of the animals in Manor Farm. However, only three days after his speech, he dies, leaving three younger pigs to take over his place and lead the other animals toward Major’s dream. They create the Seven Commandments of Animalism, which set values against acting human-like, and paint them on the wall of the barn. One night, the animals succeed in rebelling against Mr....   [tags: Literature Analysis]

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Understanding the Country of Cambodia

- Cambodia is located in Southeast Asia. If trying to pinpoint Cambodia on a map, look next to the Gulf of Thailand, between Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. When compared to the United States, Cambodia is a little smaller than the state of Oklahoma (The World Factbook, 2014). To understand a country, being educated on more than just the location of that country is important. In this paper, I will cover some of the history of Cambodia, education, political affiliations, the Cambodian economy, and much more....   [tags: culture, economy, genocides ]

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Animal Farm, By George Orwell

- This paper is a discussion of George Orwell 's Homage to Catalonia (1938) and Animal Farm (1945) showing the factual and fictional obsession with revolution in both books. The two books are based on Orwell 's personal and political background. Orwell was so obsessed with the idea of revolution that he created the details of this revolution in his mind in two books: the first is factual out of his experience and the second is fictional in a symbolic narration. Orwell’s obsession with revolution consists in the images, ideas, or words that preoccupy his mind so forcefully that they become real even when they are not....   [tags: Communism, Soviet Union, George Orwell]

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Contemporary Russian Thought

- Trends of Contemporary Russian Thought (1) ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the most recent period in the development of Russian thought (1960s-1990s). Proceeding from the cyclical patterns of Russian intellectual history, I propose to name it 'the third philosophical awakening.' I define the main tendency of this period as 'the struggle of thought against ideocracy.' I then suggest a classification of main trends in Russian thought of this period: (1) Dialectical materialism in its evolution from late Stalinism to neo-communist mysticism; (2) Neorationalism and Structuralism; (3) Neo-Slavophilism, or the Philosophy of National Spirit; (4) Personalism and Liberalism; (5) Religious Philosoph...   [tags: Russian Culture Essays]

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Communism In The Soviet Union And Why It Failed

- Communism in the Soviet Union and Why it Failed Communism is defined as "a system of political and economic organization in which property is owned by the community and all citizens share in the enjoyment of the common wealth, more or less according to their need." In 1917 the rise of power in the Marxist-inspired Bolsheviks in Russia along with the consolidation of power by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, the word communism came to mean a totalitarian system controlled by a single political party....   [tags: Communism Essays]

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Consequences of Joseph Stalin's Leadership

- Consequences of Joseph Stalin's Leadership Stalin began his rise to power after the death of Lenin in 1924. At this time, Russia was in social, political and economic turmoil and suffering from ailing international relations following the revolution of 1917 and growth of a one party communist sate. The 'uprising of the proletariat' had occurred in a country without a recognisable working class. In order for Russian industry to develop, the political system needed stabilising and capital invested in the major companies....   [tags: Papers]

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3186 words | (9.1 pages) | Preview

Economic Policy Change in Soviet Union From 1941 to 1986

- Economic Policy Change in Soviet Union From 1941 to 1986 The period 1941 - 1986 saw little change in the Russian economy, although attempts were made at reform by Khrushchev, for example, with his 'Virgin Lands' scheme. I believe that economic policy did not change between the years 1941 - 1986 but the change was often quickly reversed and change was not carried out to a great enough extent to have any significant bearing on the development of the Russian economy. Russia was almost destroyed by the efforts needed to sustain a war....   [tags: Papers]

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Stalins Reform Of Russia

- Every Day Stalinism, by Sheila Fitzpatrick gives the real accounts of life under the control of Joseph Stalin. Fitzpatrick states her claim as to how Stalin remained in power for over twenty-five years by using methods of oppression and by implementing modernity. One of the main reasons that Stalin stayed in power was by implementing modernity into a society that had previously been stuck in a traditionalized environment. Fitzpatrick describes how Stalin changed peoples lives in the Soviet Union by advancing there means of production to bring them up to speed with the rest of the western world....   [tags: essays research papers]

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407 words | (1.2 pages) | Preview

The Challenge Between Civilization and Savagery in Lord of the Flies by William Golding

- In the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, symbolism and allegories were used to show how the children who are stranded on an island have a huge struggle with civilization and savagery. Ralph, Piggy, Jack, and Simon are the ones in the novel that struggle with this the most. Golding wrote this story because he was horrified of Stalinism in Russia. His experience in World War II effected his view on humanity and evils that are capable of occurring. Ralph, Piggy, and Simon are manifested with the "civilizing instinct", while Jack, Roger, and the other hunters have the savage instinct....   [tags: struggle, ralph, piggy]

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1105 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

Comparing and Contrasting the Social & Economic Systems of Western and Eastern Europe

- The economic and social systems of Western Europe and the Soviet Eastern bloc in 1945-1955 were very different yet very similar in several ways. The East was definitely trying to reconcile with the West, whereas the West wasn’t as in to interacting with the East after World War II. Based on my new found knowledge of both the West and East of Europe, I can say that from an economic aspect, both received very different treatment from different countries. Because of the Soviet Union’s socialism, countries such as the United States viewed them negatively because of disagreeing opinions on socialism....   [tags: Marshall Plan, USSR, socialism, capitalism]

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974 words | (2.8 pages) | Preview

The Effects Of Climate Change On The Island Of Kiribati And Its People

- Reflection Paper # 2 One concept that became apparent in this unit was how climate change has had such a dramatic effect on the island of Kiribati and its people. Climate change in Kiribati is allegedly associated with the environmental pollution and chemical by-products of other nations such as Australia, England, China, and the United States. Evidence has been presented showing the Kiribati Island is at risk of vanishing as a result of the monstrous waves in the South Pacific Ocean. However, even though the United States is one of the largest known sources of extreme gas emissions, we cannot only blame it and the other developed countries....   [tags: Climate change, Greenhouse gas, Weather, Climate]

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The Threat of Love in Totalitarian Regimes as Depicted in Orwell's 1984

- Love is the foundation and the weakness of a totalitarian regime. For a stable totalitarian society, love between two individuals is eliminated because only a relationship between the person and the party and a love for its leader can exist. The totalitarian society depicted throughout the Orwell’s novel 1984 has created a concept of an Orwellian society. Stalin’s Soviet state can be considered Orwellian because it draws close parallels to the imaginary world of Oceania in 1984. During the twentieth century, Soviet Russia lived under Stalin’s brutal and oppressive governments, which was necessary for Stalin to retain power....   [tags: 1984, dystopia]

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1440 words | (4.1 pages) | Preview

Hope and Desolation in Biographies by Frank Kafka and Jorge Luis Borges

- Regarding these two stories of hope and desolation, it is very importent to throw the biography of their creators which are no less popular as their books. Combining the events of both Borges' and Kafka's life in the post world war I era, the stories provide a grim picture of the world but there lies an element of hope that is gradually realized in the end. Characters in Kafka’s story go through life changing events which alter their whole outlook in the system that governs them, some moved, some very hopeful....   [tags: insomnia, torture, relatioships]

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1147 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

The Vision of Emmanuel Levinas on Moral Evil and Our Responsibility

- Immanuel Levinas was born in the early nineteen hundreds and grew up in a time of war. He was drafted into the French army and was captured as a prisoner of war for a number of years. This experience as a prisoner of war gave him a negative view of human existence. He saw the hate and violence, which he discusses at great lengths in his works. Levinas uses the human face as the basis for his ethics. He does not ground his ethics in reason or ideas but instead in the face. His ethics is an ethics of love, and he calls this love “wisdom” insofar as it is a form of knowledge, but not knowledge of comprehension....   [tags: french army, goodness, god]

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1655 words | (4.7 pages) | Preview

What The Dog Saw and the Rise of the Global Market

- History is an odd thing. History last forever but events in history start and end. History sometimes repeats itself and other times it is considered myth because it never happens again. Luckily for the 20th century almost everyone remember it and are aware of what occurred. An example of current history is “globalization”, the UN’s intervention in Kuwait, China’s economic reforms, the rise of technology, and the rise of the global market. Yet, out of all these historical changes I believe that the rise of the global market has been the most significant due to the constant tug-of-war it has caused....   [tags: literary analysis, malcolm gladwell]

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1079 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Two Essays: Overview of the Cold War and American Containment Strategy

- Please answer two essays from the selection that follows: (ii) When did the Cold War begin. Who caused it. In the aftermath of the Second World War there is no question that the United States was the strongest country on earth. America’s gross national product (GNP) had grown substantially, and by 1945, it had constituted about half the world’s goods and services. Domestically and economically, the United States blew the Soviet’s out of the water. The U.S. produced 65,000 cars, which was significantly lower than the American production of seven million....   [tags: History, War]

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Critical Commentary and Symbolism of William Golding´s Lord of the Flies

- The Will To Persevere The novel Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, intertwines a compassionate message to the people of Great Britain and the world, while also showing the evil nature that all humans have deep down inside. At the time that this book was being written, communism was in full effect, eclipsing the good of the world, creating the illusion that this Earth is being consumed by evil. The worst of this would be the Stalinism in Russia, a complete and utter totalitarian dictatorship where the people had virtually no say in the government, this was along with the evil ways of Hitler....   [tags: Communism, Dictatorship, Boys]

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Orwell 's 1984 By George Orwell And Lady Chatterley 's Lover

- Mankind 's greatest achievement is often heralded as the development of civilised society, indeed the creation of a society that can be deemed civilised is what distinguishes humans from animals. However, Freud 's suggestion that civilisation is the source of 'misery ' can clearly be seen in the novels 1984 by George Orwell and Lady Chatterley 's Lover by D.H. Lawrence as well as Arthur Kopit 's play Chamber Music. The restrictions placed upon the characters of these novels imposed by their societies are claimed to be for the benefit of the many, however in seeing these civilisations through the eyes of specific characters, we are able to see the negative effects that these so called 'bene...   [tags: Nineteen Eighty-Four, Totalitarianism, Communism]

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1174 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

Benjamin Harshav's Language in Time of Revolution: Hebrew and Yiddish

- Benjamin Harshav’s “Language in Time of Revolution” teaches the reader that social factors, historical factors, willpower, and accidents of history brought back and revived the Hebrew and Yiddish language. This was important because it created the base for a new, secular Jewish society and culture to emerge again with their own language and a new social identity. This new social identity meant that there was a nationalistic movement toward having a common language, literature, and cultural heritage....   [tags: teachers, readers, cultures]

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1470 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

Comparison between The Taste of Ashes and Post Communist Nostalgia

- This essay will discuss two books, Marci Shore’s The Taste of Ashes and Maria Todorova and Zsuzsa Gille Post-Communist Nostalgia. Both books deal with post-communist Europe and use memory as a tool for their research. While Shore writes in a more personal narrative she gives us the realization that even when we rid countries of tyranny and coercion this does not in any way make these places better. In fact, things get far more complicated. It becomes evident that research has shown how you cannot throw people from a former communist regime into something democratic and expect it to automatically gain smooth running or for these people to know how to carry on as normal, while having the burde...   [tags: post communist, macri shore, yugoslavia]

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Analysis Of Aleksander Solzhenitsyn 's ' Matryona 's Home '

- Being one of the greatest Russian writers of 20th century, Aleksander Solzhenitsyn had a unique talent that he used to truthfully depict the realities of life of ordinary people living in Soviet era. Unlike many other writers, instead of writing about “bright future of communism”, he chose to write about everyday hardships that common people had to endure in Soviet realm. In “Matryona’s Home”, the story focuses on life of an old peasant woman living in an impoverished collectivized village after World War 2 ....   [tags: Russia, Soviet Union, Russians]

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845 words | (2.4 pages) | Preview

Analysis Of The Book ' 1984 ' By George Orwell

- Early in the story, the reader is told of Winston 's death. This occurs again in the book using symbolism. Winston’s obsession with the past and trust in a stranger are what leads to his immanent death. The song itself is not the memory of an old man, but more of a morbid warning to Winston. The picture which brings up the rhyme hangs on the wall in the room owned by Mr. Charrington. It is here that Winston and Julia have their secret rendezvous. Likewise, the paperweight is not a simple piece of coral enrobed with glass; it serves as a link to the past for Winston....   [tags: Nineteen Eighty-Four, George Orwell, Newspeak]

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Differences between the Hungarian Revolution and the Prague Spring

- When the Soviet Union annexed the countries of East Central Europe, it began to spread its communist influence amongst the countries. After the death of Joseph Stalin, the new leader of the Soviet Union, Nika Khrushchev, began changing the repressive policies of Stalin, which opened the doors to the countries of East Central Europe to challenge the rule of the Soviets. In both Hungary and Czechoslovakia, there were uprisings for independence from the Eastern Bloc. Although the Hungarian Revolution and the Prague Spring had the similar crushing defeat by a soviet invading force, the two uprising differed in outcomes due to Hungary’s nationalist attempt to break free from communism ver...   [tags: breaking away or reforming communism]

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Analysis of Hermann Haring´s Religion: A Source of Violence

- In Hermann Häring’s, Religion as a Source of Violence: Overcoming Violence in the Name of Religion (Christianity and Islam) and Working Hard to Overcome Violence in the Name of Religion, he focuses on the notion of violence in the name of religion and the role of religion in the name of peace. All religions know violence and killing are unacceptable, but when religion is questioned or disputed, violence is used as a means to protect ones authenticity or credibility. Violence is no longer an acceptable means to reconcile conflict....   [tags: violence, religion, peace, conflict, factors]

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758 words | (2.2 pages) | Preview

Analysis Of The Movie ' The Robot Spy '

- In the television shows we watched, there was a clear representation of the fear and developing hatred for communism. In Jonny Quest 's "The Robot Spy” (1964), American fears of foreign spy technology was being used to connect to the audience. In the episode, the Chinese were used to represent Communism with “Dr. Zin” as the antagonist. I feel that this show utilized the common fear of the Chinese/Communism along with American desire for a fire fight to end their worries (as long as it ended in American success) in order to relate to the audience and satisfy their fears against Communism....   [tags: Cold War, World War II, Korean War, Nuclear weapon]

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949 words | (2.7 pages) | Preview

The Threat of Love in Orwell’s Novel 1984

- Love is both the foundation and the weakness of a totalitarian regime. At the heart of any totalitarian society, love between two individuals is eliminated because only a relationship between the person and the party and a love for its leader can exist. The totalitarian society depicted throughout the Orwell’s novel 1984 has created a concept of an Orwellian society. Joseph Stalin’s Soviet regime in Russia can be described as Orwellian. The imaginary world of Oceania draws many parallels to the modern day totalitarian regime established by Stalin....   [tags: Literature Analysis]

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1335 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

Commentary on Grigori Kozintsev’s Adaptation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet

- Grigori Kozintsev’s adaptation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet has landed critical acclaim due to its faithfulness to the architecture of the play that helped to engross the eye despite the lack of aural stimulation, as well as its added political and personal lens. One of the most iconic scenes in Kozintsev’s production of Hamlet is the renowned graveyard scene in which the Gravedigger and Hamlet engage in battle of wits, and Laertes dramatizes his love for Ophelia. It is during this scene that Kozintsev strategically utilizes differing camera angles and abridgments of the original script to yield a much more conservative and idealized Hamlet that makes the situation in act 5 scene 1 much less ambi...   [tags: Idealization, Theater]

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Stephen Blake 's ' The Chimney Sweeper '

- Returning to the Chimney Sweeper Like William Blake 's return to the Chimney Sweeper after five years of experience passed him by, this too is the second incantation of this analysis. After further delving into the parallel stories it seems another approach could be similarly effective. The more one contemplates on the juxtaposition of the two sides perspectives of the story, the more one realizes that it could be seen as a struggle between two opposing views of separate class ideologies. The prior incantation of this analysis took the form of a Traditional Literary Critique....   [tags: Marxism, Karl Marx, Proletariat, Communism]

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1264 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

The Revolution Of The Reign Of Nicholas I

- Astolphe de Custine, a French Marquis who visited Russia during the reign of Nicholas I observed, “Under an absolute despotism, it is the government which is revolutionary; for the word revolution signifies arbitrary system and violent power” (Custine 574). This remark was true not only for Tsarism, but also became true under the Revolutionary leadership of Lenin and then Stalin. When Tsarism ended in Russia, the people as well as the new leadership thought a new and better state would emerge....   [tags: Soviet Union, Russia, Marxism, Socialism]

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1607 words | (4.6 pages) | Preview

Democracy And Communism : A System Of Government

- Democracy and Communism are based on two different political systems, in how these countries that have this form of government should be govern. Communism, a theory created by Karl Marx where capital and business is control by government, to get rid of economic inequality. The objective of this political system is to have a nation that leaves out class structure and money. Communism is intended to not be a divided nation that is free from ruthlessness and famine. Where the government controls all mean of production and profits....   [tags: Communism, Soviet Union, World War II]

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1992 words | (5.7 pages) | Preview

Rebuilding The Society After World War II

- Once WWI finally came to an end, German Democratic Republic’s goal was to create a high demand for labor due to the destruction caused by war. The society had to be rebuilt since it was buried under an extremely large debt to the Soviet Union. East Germany’s culture was heavily influenced by communism and particularly Stalinism. It not only intensified the economic and political competition against its West German counterparts, but it resulted in German Democratic Republic’s repressive nature to the point where German Democratic Republic citizens made many attempts to escape what was essentially a dictatorship....   [tags: german democratic republic, financial security]

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1253 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

The Life and Works of George Orwell

- The English author, George Orwell by pen name, was considered one of the best writers of his time. He was an intelligent man who based his writings off of experiences and opinions of the 20th century. His experiences ranged from growing up as an underprivileged child to policing the government in India. Orwell took realistic situations and turned them into literature wonders. Eric Arthur Blair, also known as George Orwell was born June 25th, 1903. Orwell was born in India and later moved to England as a child....   [tags: writer, totalitarianism, censorship]

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885 words | (2.5 pages) | Preview

The Rise And Fall Of German Imperialism

- Introduction Throughout European history, nations and empires have risen and fallen. Much of the modern political world is the aftermath of the European colonial powers collapsing and their colonies declaring their independence. That being said, the Europeans had very different responses to wars of aggression waged on non-European, “uncivilized” nation-states compared to continental wars of aggression fought between two European powers. The 20th century was the climax of European imperialism and annexation of neighboring powers....   [tags: Soviet Union, World War II, World War I]

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3472 words | (9.9 pages) | Preview

The Regime Of The Khmer Rouge Movement

- When looking at history, dictators and dictatorship have played a large role in controlling the desires of those they dominate, in such areas as religion and freedom of speech. An obvious example would be Adolph Hitler, who committed mass genocide on over 11 million “undesirables” such as Jews, the handicapped, and the gay, regardless of age or gender. Further, there were 50-70 million other lives taken in World War II, which Hitler started. Another brutal dictator was Saloth Sar, or as he was known, Pol Pot....   [tags: Khmer Rouge, Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan, Death]

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868 words | (2.5 pages) | Preview

The Relationship Between Western And Western Imperialism

- 1. Discuss the relationship between western industrialism and western imperialism. In the nineteenth century the industrial revolution had spread to the continent of Europe. The industrial revolution got under way, subsidizing investors, providing incentives to factory owners and improving transportation network. Also in the nineteenth century a new phase of western expansion into Asia and Africa began for imperialism. Originally the western imperialism started in Europe as well. Europe in the nineteenth century was becoming a major player in the trading network....   [tags: World War II, Soviet Union, World War I]

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1136 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

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