Your search returned over 400 essays for "macroeconomics"
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The PEST + D + N Framework and Marketing Planning

- The PEST + D + N Framework and Marketing Planning The PEST + D + N framework is a foundation on which marketing can begin with as the parts will have an affect upon any outcomes. Political, economic, social, technological, demographic and natural environments are the influences that, singularly or together, will need to be taken into consideration when marketing a product. This is show aptly by Applbaum (1998, pp.324) when he states ‘The implicitly held theory of needs and wants underlying and informing market activities’....   [tags: Business Marketing]

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The World Bank and The IMF: Twins or Rivals?

- The World Bank and The IMF: Twins or Rivals. Both institutions, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, were established more than fifty years ago; and the foundations of both were expected to play roles in stabilizing the frustrated global economy and aiding post-war European countries as well as other developing countries for economic progress. In the first three decades, both institutions had their own respective functions and extensively engaged in different economic and financial activities....   [tags: Economy Economics Essays]

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Comparison of British Parliamentary Democracy and American Presidential Democracy

- Comparison of British Parliamentary Democracy and American Presidential Democracy In declaring independence from Britain, the American Colonies sought to create a democracy that found its roots in Ancient Greece and Great Britain while improving on the flaws of each. The result was a presidential democracy that stood in contrast to the parliamentary democracy of Great Britain. Thus these, the two oldest, continuous democracies in existence present an interesting comparison. At the heart of any government is the constitution, and here we discover the first major difference between the American and British democratic systems....   [tags: Government Compare Contrast Papers]

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The European Union: Cross-National Variation in Public Support, 1993

- The European Union: Cross-National Variation in Public Support, 1993 Introduction The European Union was established in 1951 with the adoption of the European Coal and Steel Community. Many of its early integrative policies were technical in nature and received little attention from the general public. Consequently, a permissive consensus developed allowing the elite to pursue the ideals established by the European Union (EU) (Eichenberg and Dalton 1993, Gabel and Palmer 1995, Gabel 1998). In time, integrative policies became increasingly aggressive in their scope and influence....   [tags: European History Essays]

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Trade in China and the Success of its Economy

- Trade in China and the Success of its Economy China has come to the forefront of the international finance scene following the East Asian financial crisis for two reasons. First, the post reform Chinese economy closely resembles the other East Asian countries. China experienced significant levels of growth led by exports, with a rapid expansion in labor-intensive exports in its early stage of development. Rapid growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in domestic savings and massive inflows of foreign capital (Perkins, 1986)....   [tags: Economics China Trade Currency Money Essays]

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ECON 4131, International Finance, Spring 2002, Exam 3 Final

- Final Exam Questions -- Economics 4131, Spring 2006 1. Explain how the gold standard operated in the classical period (1870-1914). What were the advantages and disadvantages. Some say the gold standard sacrificed internal balance to external balance. How. What were the “rules of the game” and what would happen when they were violated. What would happen when the demand for monetary gold rose faster than the supply, and why was this a problem. 2. Explain the functioning of the Bretton Woods currency arrangement....   [tags: UMN Minnesota Business Economics Finance]

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Recent Developments in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

- Recent Developments in the Emerging Markets of Latin America 1. In the LAC region, growth is moderating after reaching a 24-year high in 2004. (Figure 26) Nonetheless, projected growth rates of about 4 percent in 2005 and 3¾ percent in 2006 are still well above historical averages. Recent growth performance has been supported by the continued strength of global commodity and raw material prices that have boosted terms of trade and exports receipts. Mexico and countries in South America have gained, in particular, from the surge in fuel, food, and metals prices, and have generally been able to exploit these opportunities by expanding volumes-in some cases very substantially....   [tags: Developing Countries Economics Market]

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Mexico and The World Bank: Rebuilding a Country

- Mexico and The World Bank: Rebuilding a Country The 1994/1995 financial crisis in Mexico affected me in a very personal way. My family is from Mexico City, and my dad owns a small private firm that specializes in manufacturing tools. After the devaluation, I not only watched my father struggle with the failing economy and lack of business growth opportunities, I also witnessed a country begin to sink deeper into poverty and despair. There are many reasons for the devaluation, but one of the main ones is probably the “poor savings rates and the low rate of investment (only saved 19 percent of GDP from 1980-1994)” (Bloomburg)....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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The Workings and Effectiveness of the Price Mechanism

- The Workings and Effectiveness of the Price Mechanism Introduction In this essay I am going to analyse the workings and effectiveness of the price mechanism as a means of allocating and reallocating scarce resources. I am going to do this by comparing the free market economy with its alternatives and by looking at how government intervention allows the price mechanism to carry on working. I am also going to look at the role that we, as consumers, play in the workings of the price mechanism....   [tags: Economics]

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The effects of inflation on the labor market

- Objective: The effect of inflation on the job market The Effects of inflation on the Job Market In the major industrial countries, low unemployment usually creates inflationary pressures. But during the recent economic expansion in the United States, prices have held steady despite low unemployment. Inflation is generally defined as an upward directional increase in the average of prices. Most people tend to be concerned about it because it reduces the purchasing power of the income earned by households....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The European Economic Community and the Euro Dollar

- The European Economic Community and the Euro Dollar The European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the common market, was established in 1957 through the treaty of Rome signed between Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Germany in order to achieve economic cooperation. "It has since worked for the free movement of labor and capital, the abolition of trusts and cartels, and the development of joint and reciprocal policies on labor, social welfare, agriculture, transport, and foreign trade." Over the years, monetary union has been suggested by the members of the EEC and was finally attained on January 1,1999 when eleven European countries, which are now collecti...   [tags: Papers]

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Promotion of New and Renewable Sources of Energy

- Promotion of New and Renewable Sources of Energy Introduction Energy plays a crucial role in the economic development of all nations, especially those with limited access to resources. Access to energy sources is one of the fundamental elements of poverty reduction and sustainable development. It is for this reason that renewable energy and energy efficiency is essential to protect and preserve, as it provides a basis for economic advances, increased education, and environment sustainability....   [tags: United Nations Economics Essays Papers]

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The Transition Of Public Management in America

- The Transition Of Public Management: 2000s A puzzling question is what can be expected from public management and public managers in the new millennium. What are the important issues such as regulatory reform, public sector budgeting, human resources management, strategic policymaking, ethics, and corruption, now and in the future. Will the alternative to government delivery of service be privatization. The concepts of Rational Administration, Accountability, Planning, Control, Budgeting and Financial management are major factors in the future of this nation and the world....   [tags: Public Management Essays]

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Integration in the EU and Monetary Policy

- Integration in the EU and Monetary Policy The creation of the European Union (EU) is a great political and economic feat. For it is the ultimate sign of cooperation between nations that had been in constant rivalry before. Nevertheless, the ideals of such a union cannot stand alone without having a strong foundation and continuos rational decision making by all of the actors involved. If we assume that the European Central Bank’s (ECB) principle role is to guarantee the well-being of all EU members, then policy making becomes a very complex issue since it must consider such a large and diverse area....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Economics Essays]

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Contracts and Economic Development of Eastern Europe

- Contracts and Economic Development of Eastern Europe The concept of contract law has been developed through years. It deals with how different procedures have been used to help solve contract conflicts. Contract law reflects real business experience since it can be traced back to the days when in order to solve a dispute English courts used the lex mercatoria, which were the commercial rules that merchants used when doing business across borders. A contract is the legal relationship that consists of the rights and duties of the agreeing parties growing out of promises....   [tags: Papers]

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The Introduction and Effects of the Euro

- The Introduction and Effects of the Euro 1 Introduction The euro has been in existence just long enough to generate sufficient data for a first look at its actual performance, having been introduced in January 1999. This assessment presents eight studies that use post-1999 data to provide a first look at how the euro is actually affecting trade, financial markets, macroeconomic policy-making, and Europe¡¯s economic performance. 1.1 What is the Euro. The Euro is the single currency used in 12 EU member states....   [tags: European Union Currency]

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The Cultural Challenges Of Doing Business Overseas

- Introduction There are many challenges to doing business in the U.S. and there are additional challenges that occur when the decision is made to do business in a foreign country. In this paper I will discuss the challenges Steve Kafka will face as he opens his business in the Czech Republic. Per the information given to me in the assignments, Steve Kafka is an American of Czech origin and he a franchisor for Chicago Style Pizza. He has decided to expand his business into the Czech Republic, knowing this is a risky decision....   [tags: International Business Trade Globalization]

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Linking Media Violence and Negative Behavior

-      Many Americans feel that the viewing of violence in the media reinforces negative behavior in society, especially among children and young adults. "Three thousand studies have been done since 1955 on the link between television and violence; 2,980 of them found a correlation between the two.  We hear little about that because we get most of our news from television" (Peterson).  With this much research one must acknowledge that there is a problem in America involving sex and violence in the media.  We cannot blame all societal problems on the media and its portrayal of these issues, but we can become educated, ourselves, in order to better facilitate the healthy lives of our children....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]

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The Need for International Labor Standards

- The Need for International Labor Standards "The statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no single council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it" (Smith, 1776: 456) Introduction There is no question that the combination of the free market and rapidly advancing technologies has integrated the world economy to a level unsurpassed in history....   [tags: Economy Economics Essays]

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Structural Funding Policy in the EU

- Structural Funding Policy in the EU The central aim of this paper is to examine European Union policy in terms of its agenda setting characteristics. To do this, a theory of punctuated equilibrium is explored, based on the emergence and recession of policy issues from the transnational policy agenda. The primary goal of this paper is to define the current equilibrium and how it is punctuated. The secondary goal is to examine what forces drive the punctuated equilibrium, so that we might predict punctuation in the future....   [tags: European Union Policy Essays]

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Free Capital Mobility and Capital Control

- Economists, albeit, argue for free trade, but when it comes down to the idea of untrammeled capital flow, it doesn’t seem to get unanimous support. It is a natural phenomenon that almost everything we see in nature (i.e. fluid, air, etc) travels down the concentration gradient. Same way, it had been thought that freeing international capital flow would help the countries that are struggling economically as the capital should flow down the concentration gradient; but in reality it doesn’t quite happen that way....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Conservative Legislation and Trade Union Power

- Conservative Legislation (during the 1980s and early 1990’s) and Trade Union Power Trade Unions can be defined as: ‘ Organisations of workers set up to improve the status, pay and conditions of employment of its members’. Salaman, ‘Industrial Relations’, P77 From the end of the second world war, and up until the 1970’s trade unionism was continually growing. By 1979, 57.3% of all people employed were members of trade unions. Annual abstract Statistics, 1990, ‘Industrial relations’, M.P. Jackson, 1991, P57 ‘Trade unionism may be seen as a social response to industrialisation and capitalism’ Salaman, Industrial relations, P79 In the early days of trade unionism, there was a direct need...   [tags: Essays Papers]

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To Forgive or Not to Forgive

- To Forgive or Not to Forgive Debt is a substantial problem facing many countries in the world today. Some of the more economically stable countries are able to pay off their debt through strategic budget planning. However, there are many countries that constantly struggle to solve their debt problems. In response of this issue, the IMF and the World Bank have designed a framework to provide special assistance for heavily indebted poor countries that pursue IMF and World Bank supported adjustment and reform programs....   [tags: essays papers]

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The British Building and Construction Industry

- The British Building and Construction Industry UK construction industry provides tenth of UK gross domestic product and employs 1.4 million people. UK designers, civil engineers, contractors, component and product manufactures. UK construction industry is one of the strongest in the world with output ranked in global top ten, with increase of private finances to public sector projects. British consultants and contractors are well positioned to offer skills and experience in building projects. In order for British construction industry to do what they are best capable of doing which is providing and building new houses, demand and supply plays a vital role....   [tags: Construction Building Economics England Essays]

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Marketing Strategy for Unilever South Africa

- Marketing Strategy for Unilever South Africa UNILEVER COMPANY MISSION "Our purpose in Unilever is to meet the everyday needs of people everywhere - to anticipate the aspirations of our consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competitively with branded products and services which raise the quality of life". "Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are our unparalleled inheritance and the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers - a truly multi-local multinational." "Our long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and produ...   [tags: Business Marketing Plan Strategy Strategic]

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Business Development in a Global Market

- Business Development in a Global Market Developing a business opportunity or introducing a new product into the global market place is a risky business at the best of times. Strong and precise business strategies along with extensive market research are the keys for developing a successful global enterprise. This essay will cover the core fundamentals required to best enter the global market while minimizing the risks. Core fundamentals include, indentifying potential markets, product competition, risks involved, future growth potential, entry strategy and costs involved to enter the market place....   [tags: International Business Analysis Marketing]

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Outlook for the Price of Platinum

- Outlook for the Price of Platinum Introduction The aim of this report is to forecast the future price of platinum using both macroeconomic and mircoeconomic principles. The factors influencing supply and demand of platinum will be looked at, and a regression analysis forecast done. Factors Affecting Supply As shown in graph 1, South Africa is the largest producer of Platinum (79%) followed by Russia (12%) and North America (5%). Supply from regions outside of South Africa has remained relatively stable over the past ten years, with any increase in supply primarily driven by South Africa....   [tags: Market Industry Analysis Forecast]

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Quality Decision Making in Management

- The overall purpose of this research paper is to define and assess decision making in management as well as the need for alternatives to use in the decision making processes. Management is concerned with combining all of the inputs of production. Managers decide what to make and how to make it. They chose from the available inputs and work out the right mix. Management must organize production to meet the goals of the company, which normally include keeping manufacturing costs low and producing a profit....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Does Geography control your destiny?

- Human activity has major effects on geography. When studying the earth you can come to several conclusions about the geography of any particular civilization. Distribution of life in the civilization allows you to analyze whether their geography is their own destiny. Do people control their own destiny. Is geography something that people can control. Technology is really the key to why geography can be overcome by any people. Throughout the history of the earth we have seen many countries leave their homeland....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Corruption in Former Soviet Countries

- Corruption in Former Soviet Countries Administrative corruption and state capture generally occur as the result of inadequate institutional structures and policies that do not support competition and free trade. Predictably, these inefficiencies have been especially prevalent in the transition process from a socialist to a market economy. Consequently, combating corruption has become a major factor in the debate over optimal reform strategies. Numerous theorists have suggested shock therapy as the optimal method to minimize corruption, but empirical evidence shows mixed results throughout transition economies....   [tags: Essays on Corruption]

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Airline Industry Strategic Management Assignment

- MBA: Strategic Management Assignment Introduction Markets differ in a variety of ways including the degree of concentration and competitiveness, a fact which is reflected in the concept of ‘market structure’. Economists’ models link the structural characteristics of a market to the behaviour of firms in that market and subsequently to their performance. A key question therefore is how far a firm’s strategic decisions are shaped by the structure of the market in which it operates. You are required to undertake a detailed examination of the changing nature of the long-haul transatlantic airline market....   [tags: Strategy Management]

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RadioShack SWOT Analysis For Management

- Throughout my college career, I have been involved in a wide variety of organizations and internships that not only refined my business skills, but also provided me the realistic experience in the business realm. I have experienced a wide-range of activities and work that span from selling automobile parts to providing services to patients recovering from substance abuse and mental illness. Throughout this journey, I was given an opportunity to not only develop my business marketing skills, but allowed a glimpse of the industry (and the systematic process of that particular field) as well....   [tags: swot analysis Business]

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Fiscal Policy

- Fiscal Policy Most people nowadays seem to think that fiscal policy cannot be used to influence economic activity, and they are supported in this view by the majority of professional macroeconomists. Students are taught that output and employment are determined by the demands and supplies of individuals interacting in a gigantic market and that governments cannot alter the outcome of this process except temporarily and destructively. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) bases its projections of the federal budget on assumptions about output that are largely independent of fiscal policy....   [tags: Papers]

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Economics and the Environment

- Mainstream economic thought of the 20th century was dominated by the principle of ‘more is better’, this thinking is dangerously misguided. Concentrating on maximizing real GNP has been brought about by economists who are working on the assumption that growth is always justified, because of the infinite wants of the population. These economists also see growth as a solution to the problems of the world today. Even those who propose ‘sustainable growth’ are false in that they assume that it is possible to continue with the growth of the last two centuries....   [tags: Sustainable Growth Essays]

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The Forever Changing Economy

- The Forever Changing Economy How easy is it for smaller business men to achieve the Aamerican dream. How to stop corporate domination. The question I pose to you is " Is the American Dream still achievable?" The opportunity is there but for what select few is the opportunity available to. If the resources are out there but I can't tap into the resources they rae of no use to me. (Make note of the fact that we live in a market economy. Just about every definition of the "market" in the dictionary connotes an oppurtunity as a place where goods are bought and sold.(cite dict.) As an abstraction, a market is the possibility of sale....   [tags: essays research papers]

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NAFTA and U.S.-Mexico Trade

- NAFTA and U.S.-Mexico Trade The agreement Three years after the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) created the largest free trade area in the world, the debate rages on. Critics say NAFTA is a failure that its member countries — the United States, Mexico and Canada — should abandon. It’s a “trade agreement from hell,” according to the consumer group Public Citizen. Supporters call NAFTA a success and want it to expand across Latin America. Former Commerce Secretary and U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor calls it a “win-win situation” for everyone....   [tags: Papers]

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Increases in World Trade

- Increases in World Trade Trade is where people exchange products, either directly through a barrier or indirectly through the medium of money, in hope of achieving mutual advantage (Comparative advantage which in turn leads to opportunity cost) Trade therefore allows a country to consume beyond its PPF. The greater the gradient of it’s trading line,the greater the gains from trade to the countries concerned. Another way to emphasize the significance of trade is to show the welfare gain of going from no trade to free trade....   [tags: Papers]

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The Meaning of Inflation

- The Meaning of Inflation There are four macroeconomic policy objectives that a government pursues: high and stable economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, the avoidance of balance of payments deficits and excessive exchange rate fluctuations. Some of these policy objectives may conflict with each other depending on the priorities of the government. A policy designed to accelerate the rate of economic growth may result in a higher rate of inflation and balance of payment deficit....   [tags: Papers]

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Effects Of Business Cycles

- Introduction In general the economy tends to experience different trends. These trends can be grouped as the business/trade cycle and may contain a boom, recession, depression and recovery. A business/trade cycle (see figure 1) is the periodic but irregular up-and-down movements in economic activity, measured by fluctuations in real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and other macroeconomic variables. Samuelson and Nordhaus (1998), defined it as ‘a swing in total national input, income and employment, usually lasting for a period of 2 to 10 years, marked by widespread expansion or contraction in most sectors of the economy’....   [tags: Economics]

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Environmental Analysis: Southwest Airlines

- Environmental Analysis: Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines is one of the most successful airlines in the United States. There has never been layoffs or strikes in the history of the company, although there were several times when layoffs could have been justified, including the months following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. However, Southwest's Mission statement says “Above all, Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer.” (Southwest, 1988)....   [tags: Business Analysis Airline]

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Pre-Employment Screening Industry Report

- Pre-Employment Screening Industry Overview Industry Overview Due to the increasing costs associated with workplace embezzlement, fraud, violence, and other unethical business practices, the need to manage hiring and personnel risk has never been of greater importance than in today's business environment. The process of verifying past employment, education, and criminal history is an essential facet of many contemporary corporate risk management programs. The pre-employment screening industry is a small, highly fragmented sub-industry of the much larger Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector, a space dominated by a handful of large companies accounting for almost 25% of the industry's...   [tags: Market Analysis]

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The Forever Changing Economy

- The Forever Changing Economy How easy is it for smaller business men to achieve the Aamerican dream. How to stop corporate domination. The question I pose to you is " Is the American Dream still achievable?" The opportunity is there but for what select few is the opportunity available to. If the resources are out there but I can't tap into the resources they rae of no use to me. (Make note of the fact that we live in a market economy. Just about every definition of the "market" in the dictionary connotes an oppurtunity as a place where goods are bought and sold.(cite dict.) As an abstraction, a market is the possibility of sale....   [tags: Business Economics]

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Employer Militancy in Australia

- Employer Militancy in Australia What is meant by employer militancy. How have employer actions towards trade unions changed since the end of the 1980’s. Why have Australian employers undertaken this change of approach. This essay will answer the three essay questions put forward. Firstly, it will briefly explain what is meant by employer militancy. It will outline the main features of the aggressive approach adopted by employers in their relations with trade unions since the 1980’s. Secondly, this essay will describe the changes in employer actions towards unions....   [tags: Unions Labor Work Workforce Employment Australia]

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Federal Reserve

- Federal Reserve The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a calculation that provides insight into the current economy of our nation to allow individuals to understand the current and past year’s standings in the economy. The calculation of the GDP allows for the government to determine what adjustments are necessary to manage an effective status for the economy. Based upon the GDP the government can forecast any necessary changes that must be made to either the monetary policy or the fiscal policy. The wealth of a country is based upon the government’s ability to manage the economy through the monetary system and not on the amount of money that is located within that economy....   [tags: Economics]

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Banking Sector

- Traditionally, the existence of bank runs was a very frequent phenomenon in Europe during the 19th century. It was mostly seen in the emerging countries where the boeotian level was low. Kaminsky and Reinhard introduced a new concept in the banking sector called twin crises. The twin crises concept started since 1980 and occurs when both currency and banking crises take place simultaneously. This harmful phenomenon anticipated a significant recession after the 1933 when the Federal Reserve System imposed the concept of Deposit Insurance in the US....   [tags: Financial System, Bank Runs]

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Poverty Eradication

- Introduction Poverty eradication has been on the global development agenda since the birth of development itself. Unfortunately for the impoverished, the agenda of the neoliberal and transnational classes are not as concerned with poverty eradication as they are with capital and industry. This means that the needs of the citizens, poor citizens in particular, get put on the back burner in the name of economic growth and free market policy. In Latin America, 40% of the population is categorized as poor, and in Brazil the extreme level of disparity and the states refusal to adequately address it has led to the formation of a Landless Workers Movement which calls itself the MST (Leiva, 2008)....   [tags: Global Development]

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Trade Facilitation

- International trade plays crucial role in the development of any country. And Trade facilitation can be define as a procedure to make international trade possible in a best and efficient way. In which transaction cost of trade is minimum and goods transfer from one country to other in shortest time. According to WTO, “Trade facilitation is defined as a procedure and controls for the movement of the good from one country to another can be reduce cost and burden. And also find the efficient flow of goods”....   [tags: International Trade, WTO]

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- Mexico remains far behind it's North American neighbours, economically it has become stagnant and sluggish, and as a result the nation has been riddled with social inequality. But some might argue that unlike other nations, Mexico has been pampered and is left without excuse for remaining in such a state of underdevelopment, so far behind the West. But to the contrary I believe that it is that very “pampering” and extra attention from Washington that has led to Mexico's current state, its location and close relationship with the US have, in my opinion, become the downfall of the Mexican economy....   [tags: Mexican Economy, Underdevelopment]

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Brazil World Trade

- Brazil World Trade From the 1500’s to the 1930’s the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. For three centuries Brazil’s economy was heavily curbed because since Portugal discovered Brazil, they subjected it’s economy to an imperial mercantile policy or a strictly enforced colonial pact. Even though Brazil received its independence in 1822, Portugal’s phase of decisions left a lasting, powerful imprint on Brazil’s economy and society. In the late eighteenth century, when wage labor was adopted and slavery was eliminated considerable changes finally began to occur....   [tags: Brazil Economics Economy Essays]

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Equity vs Debt

- Equity vs Debt Financial Statement Information - Debt and Equity Holders Debtholders and equityholders as claimants to a firm’s future cashflows are interested in assessing risk. Debtholders Debtholders are primarily interested in assessing whether the firm’s cashflow will be sufficient to make interest and principal payments on a timely basis The lower the probability of a cash shortfall, the lower the risk to the debtholder Debtholders therefore gather information about the firm’s liquidity, debt capacity and liquidation value of assets Equityholders Equityholders are residual claimants of the firm’s cashflows....   [tags: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework]

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Asian Financial Crisis

- In the summer of 1997, an economic and currency crisis rocked the Asian markets. One by one, Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Japan saw their economies crash in the wake of heavy foreign investment. An economic boom had made the region an attractive investment opportunity for much of the 1990s. By 1997, however, domestic production and development had stalled, and foreign investors grew nervous. A divestment run on the Thai baht triggered the crash. Large corporations, extremely dependent upon the confidence of foreign investors failed to meet debt obligations and began to fail throughout Southeast Asia....   [tags: business economics]

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The European Union

- The European Union was created in 1958 providing interregional trade barriers, a common external tariff against other countries, a Common Agricultural Policy and guarantees of free movement of labor and capital. The EU is formerly called the European Community, and became known as the EU in January of 1994. The EU currently consist of 15 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK) that all have adopted the same currency known as the Euro....   [tags: European Union Esays]

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What is Economics?

- Economics, in one aspect, is the study of how individuals, societies, and countries manage to deal with the problem of scarcity. Scarcity is a problem within economics because the wants of people are unlimited and the resources available to fulfil those wants are finite (Sloman, 2001). The answer to scarcity is efficiency which Gowland and Paterson (1993) described as the most benefit from a certain amount of scarce resources. Within the economic system, there are several types of economies, each generating a different level of efficiency....   [tags: Economic Systems Economy Scarcity Essays]

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The Phillips Curve

- The Phillips Curve Economists agree that unemployment and inflation are two of the major macroeconomic problems of the twentieth century. If a relationship between the two existed then this would be a major break through for the macro management of the economy. Phillips' work was empirical - started with evidence and worked towards a theory. The causation for the Phillips theory was that the level of unemployment caused the rate of change in money wages to be what it was. 'What economic theory lies behind this?' As unemployment decreases the available pull of labour goes down....   [tags: Economics The Phillips Curve Economy Essays]

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War on Drugs

- I. Thesis and Literature Summary In our contemporary society, the media constantly bombards us with horror stories about drugs like crack-cocaine. From them, and probably from no other source, we learn that crack is immediately addictive in every case, we learn that it causes corruption, crazed violence, and almost always leads to death. The government tells us that we are busy fighting a war on drugs and so it gives us various iconic models to despise and detest : we learn to stereotype inner-city minorities as being of drug-infested wastelands and we learn to "witchhunt" drug users within our own communities under the belief that they represent moral sin and pure evil....   [tags: Papers Narcotics Drug Society Essays]

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World Of Finance

- 1. What are the economic functions financial intermediaries perform. Financial intermediaries provide two important advantages to savers. First, intermediaries provide many loans, so the few that fall short do not impact as much as a the loss faced by an individual with few loans. They provide a platform to incur less risk to each individual. Another reason financial intermediaries reduce risk is that by making many loans, they learn how to better predict which of the people who want to borrow money will be able to repay....   [tags: Question Answer Finance Financial Functions]

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Current Economic Analysis

- Current Economic Analysis Economics Define unemployment. Provide an example of the three types of unemployment. Which type of unemployment is most problematic and why. What type of unemployment problem(s) does the U.S. currently have and why. What is a possible solution to the unemployment problem(s). Unemployment is the failure of a person to find jobs. (Schiller, 2006) This means that an unemployed person is one that is capable of working and is actively seeking for a job but is unable to find employment, which means that, this person is an active member of the labor force in search for job opportunities but unable to find one....   [tags: Economics Economy]

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IT In Retail

- Retail in India Organized retailing is a decade old industry in India with an overall market share of 3 percent. Currently, the estimated total sales of organized retailers are Rs.175 billion. The sector has witnessed robust growth during the last two years which could mainly be attributed to the establishment of international quality formats modified to suit the Indian purchase behavior; entry of several domestic and international players; development of retail-specific properties; improvement in retail processes and turnaround in operations of some existing retailers....   [tags: Information Technology India Retail Market]

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Organizational Behavior Forces

- Organizational Behavioral Forces There are many internal and external forces that can affect an organization. Internally an organization sets up its own culture. It creates its own internal structure, mission, and fiscal policies. These internal forces are created to engage the external forces that include, but aren't limited to, an organization competition, the economy, and the demands of the customers....   [tags: Business Organization Management]

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Ryanair Case Analysis

- MAJOR ISSUE From the perspective of Ryanair, the major issue facing the firm is its valuation in the long-term, known as its economic value. Although the firm maintains a bullish outlook, there are diverging opinions regarding the valuation of the firm among investors. The valuations of the firm vary widely, with stock price estimates ranging from €3.05 to €7.57. This range reflects discrepancies on whether Ryanair has solid business model and fundamentals as well as numerous issues that plague not only Ryanair, but the airline industry as a whole....   [tags: Business Analysis Airline]

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Economic System

- Economic System A country’s economic system consists of the structure and processes that it uses to allocate it’s resources and conduct it’s commercial activities. Types of Economic Systems - Centrally planned economy - Mixed economy - Market economy Centrally planned economy System in which a nation’s resources are owned by the government. Origins: the ideology that the welfare of the group is more important than individual well being. (Karl Marx). Decline: In the 80’s nations began to dismantle communist central planning in favor of market based economy....   [tags: essays research papers]

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risk management

- Risk Management For Banking Companies Risk management is the process of assessing risk and developing strategies to manage the risk. In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the greatest loss and greatest probability of occurring are handled first. In practice the process can be very difficult, and balancing between risks with high probability of occurrence but lower loss & risks with high loss but lower probability of occurrence can often be mishandled....   [tags: essays research papers]

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- Economics2 CLASSICAL THEORY -The classical theory of employment is grounded in Say’s Law, the classical interest rate mechanism, and downwardly flexible prices and wages. -The aggregate supply curve is vertical at the full-employment level of output; the aggregate demand curve is stable if the money supply is constant. -Government macroeconomic policies are unnecessary and counter-productive; automatic, built-in mechanisms provide for full-employment output. KEYNESIAN THEORY -Keynesian analysis unlinks saving and investment plans and discredits downward price-wageflexibility, implying that changes in aggregate spending, output, and employment, are likely....   [tags: essays papers]

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Country Analysis

- Country Analysis A country analysis project must be analyzed in the context of its political, legal, economic, social, and cultural environments-the investment climate of the target country. Although sensitivity to particular factors varies from one project to another, all analyses are subject to the influence of some set of specific factors. Therefore a firm should raise three questions about a country's investment climate: (1) How the investment climate will be critical to the success of the project....   [tags: essays papers]

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Monetary Policy

- Monetary Policy I chose to research and write on the topic of monetary policy. My two main sources of information were and From my research I would define monetary policy as the macroeconomic act of keeping the country financially stable. According to “The object of monetary policy is to influence the performance of the economy as reflected in such factors as inflation, economic output, and employment. It works by affecting demand across the economy—that is, people's and firms' willingness to spend on goods and services”....   [tags: essays papers]

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Fiscal Policy

- Fiscal Policy can be explained in many ways, for example. Fiscal policy is the use of the government budget to affect an economy. When the government decides on the taxes that it collects, the transfer payments it gives out, or the goods and services that it purchases, it is engaging in fiscal policy. The primary economic impact of any change in the government budget is felt by particular groups—a tax cut for families with children, for example, raises the disposable income of such families. Discussions of fiscal policy, however, usually focus on the effect of changes in the government budget on the overall economy—on such macroeconomic variables as GNP and unemployment and inflation....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Post-Keynesian Economic

- Post-Keynesian economic was formed and developed by economists such as Joan Robinson and Nicholas Kaldor who believed Keynesian economics was based on disequilibrium and uncertainty, and that challenges the general equilibrium assumptions of neo-classical theory. The main aim of post-Keynesian economics is to complete the unfinished Keynesian revolution. Post-Keynesian economists fundamentally used ideas from Keynes and his concept of effective demand, Marxist economist Michael Kalecki to provide a critique of neo-classical economics beliefs and an alternative theory of markets....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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International Investment

- In 2002, imports to the United States from developing nations totaled a whopping $317 billion. (The United States is the single largest market for developing nations' goods.) Exports from the U.S. to those nations totaled $130 billion. Both imports and exports are important, but look at the difference, that is, the trade deficit that resulted for the United States: $187 billion. That's 44 percent of the entire trade deficit that the United States ran last year with all nations. In other words, with developing countries, the United States buys a good deal more than it sells....   [tags: Business Economics Global Finance]

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Foreign Exchange

- Foreign Exchange Paper A country's currency is a gauge of how well that country's economy is doing. "Currently the United States has a 3% real rate of return. The short-term interest rate is 5.25% and the inflation rate is 2.25% based on the core-rate from the GDP numbers" (Kordell, 2008). If one compares our real rate of return with other countries; Canada +2.50, Britain +2.50, Euro FX +0.25, and Japan +1.15 one can see that money tended to flow towards the U.S. over the past several years ever since the monetary policy was changed and interest rates in the U.S....   [tags: Economics Finance]

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Southwest Airlines

- Introduction By October 2002, Southwest Airlines had apparently weathered the initial crisis to the airline industry that resulted from the September 11, 2001 ("9/11") terrorist attacks. Most of the large national carriers had experienced huge losses in demand, profitability and market share, while in contrast Southwest's low-fare operations had thrived, even in the face of declining earnings. Yet, only a year after the attacks, Southwest and the industry in general faced still unknown future changes to its operating environment....   [tags: Business Analysis Management]

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Starbucks Marketing

- Starbucks opened in Seattle’s Pike Place Market in 1971 with hopes of creating a "third place" between home and work. Starbucks was created to produce premium coffee, while adhering to various core principles during economic growth. "The company has realized that people don’t only come for coffee; they come for the atmosphere," (Kembell). Customers are able to socialize, read, study or enjoy music while drinking coffee. Starbucks strategically positions each store with hopes of matching the specific location, helping to create a unique atmosphere....   [tags: Business Marketing]

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- MERCOSUR Introduction The Sectoral Commission for MERCOSUR (COMISEC) was created on April 1, 1991 by Executive Decree No. 176/991. It is made up of: · Government Representatives and Delegates from the Office of Planning and Budget · Chamber of Industry of Uruguay · National Chamber of Commerce · Mercantile Chamber of Uruguay · Unions (PIT/CNT) · Rural Association of Uruguay · Rural Federation of Uruguay · Agrarian Cooperatives Association · State-owned Enterprises This decree entrusts COMISEC with the following functions: a) Advise the Executive Branch as regards the adoption of internal measures aimed at the application, pursuit and evaluation of the process of regional...   [tags: Essays Papers]

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- COUNTRY ISSUES Culture, Social, and Demographics: When examining any company and their possible expansion into new markets you must first examine the culture, social, and demographic issues impacting foreign businesses. The Colombian culture has begun to show a bias towards American products as recently as 1998. As written in Carol Casper's New York Times article, 'There is a lot of interest in U.S. concepts and products...'; in not only Colombia but also all of Latin America. The interest has caused more American firms to begin to see these developing attitudes and expand their businesses into Latin America....   [tags: essays research papers]

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- Introduction A bank refers to a financial institution that accepts deposits and channels the money into lending activities (Lewis, 2009). Ethics refers to the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group ((Lewis, 2009).) Conceptually, ethics refers to well base standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues (Safakli, 2005). It’s the integrity measure, which evaluates the values, norms and rules that constitute the base for individual and social relationships, from a moral perspective (Smith and Smith, 2002)....   [tags: Financial Institutions]

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- Globalisation Introduction To begin with, tell them that they will need to look at the essay questions today Later we will be doing a trial reflective exercise Let’s look at Globalisation My story When my colleagues and I were faced with redundancy we were placed in a unique position. Or perhaps it wasn’t quite so unique, just unspoken; ‘experts’ are not renowned for publicly applying their own theories to themselves. After years working as labour researchers or workplace change consultants we found ourselves in the position of having the stories we told other workers and their managements about why change was happening being reflected back to us by our managers and the people employed to...   [tags: Economics Capitalism Economy Essays]

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- Cambodia Cambodia finally experienced its first year of peace in over 30 years. This may look attractive to many investors. In this profile report, Cambodia’s demographics, economy, political environment, investment laws, socio-cultural risk, and technological environments will be discussed. Demographics · Poor and young population The EUI estimates the population was around 11.3 million in 1998 based on a UN Population Fund/ Cambodian government survey in December 1996. Estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes...   [tags: Essays Papers]

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- Banking So Much for That Plan "More than 70% of commercial bank assets are held by organizations that are supervised by at least two federal agencies; almost half attract the attention of three or four. Banks devote on average about 14% of their non-interest expense to complying with rules" (Anonymous 88). A fool can see that government waste has struck again. This tangled mess of regulation, among other things, increases costs and diffuses accountability for policy actions gone awry....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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- Korea What distinguishing factors help explain the rapid economic growth experienced by the South Korean economy over the past four decades. As the South Korean economy has reached a more mature stage of its economic growth, what are the evolving challenges it has had to face. What are its prospects of continued economic success in the increasingly globalised world economy. The rapid growth and development in the newly industrialising economies (NIE’s) in recent decades has been nothing short of spectacular....   [tags: essays research papers]

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- Nigeria Nigeria had an eventful history. More than 2,000 years ago, the Nok culture in the present plateau state worked iron and produced experienced terracotta sculpture. The history of the northern cities of Kano and Katsina dates back to approximately 1000 A.D. In the following centuries, Hausa Kingdoms and the Bornu Empire became important terminals of north-south trade between North African Berbers and the forest people, exchanging slaves, ivory, and other products. The Yoruba Kingdom of Oyo was founded in 1400s....   [tags: Papers]

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- Inflation defines as an increase in the price you pay or a decline in the purchasing power of money. In other words, price inflation is when prices get higher or it takes more money to buy the same item. Interest rates are increased to moderate demand and inflation and they are reduced to stimulate demand. Monetary policy aims to influence the overall level of monetary demand in the economy so that it grows broadly in line with the economy's ability to produce goods and services. This stops output rising too quickly or slowly....   [tags: Economics Economy Price Inflation]

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