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Internal Combustion Engine

- Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in there. Well I have, and that's why I have been so interested in cars. Internal combustion engines have been getting us around since the 1800's. A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and wires to the uninitiated, but if you want to get down in the dirt they really work in a simple way. You might want to know to, because it is something that you use everyday of your life. I have been interested in cars and motors since I was a little kid, but recently within the past 5 years I have really gotten into the engine them selves and seeing how they work....   [tags: Engineering]

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Light Intensity

- By looking at Table A in the microscopic light results, it can be seen that the results would obey the inverse square law. This was because as the distance increases the light intensity of the microscopic light decreases. The graphs that demonstrate the inverse square law can be seen in figure 1 and 3. Thus, it is evident that the relationship between light intensity varies inversely with the square of the distance holds truth in real-life situations and or under laboratory conditions. The reason for this was because figure 1 was tested in the dark room (under laboratory) whilst figure 3 was tested with other sources of lights (real-life situation) such as sunlight....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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Osmosis Investigation

- Osmosis Investigation Introduction ============ Mr. and Mrs. Brown own a fish and chip shop; they employ Lee for an hour after school every day to prepare the chips, which are to be fried during the evening. Lee peels the potatoes, cuts them into chips and then places them in containers of salty water to prevent them from drying up. There have been complaints that the chips are sometimes soft and limp. Mr. Brown wants to sack Lee who he considers to be slapdash and careless, but Mrs....   [tags: Papers]

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Osmosis in Potato Cells

- Osmosis in Potato Cells I am going to do an experiment to find the concentration of solute in potato cells. In order to find the best way to do this experiment I am going to do a preliminary test first. For my preliminary test I decided to use potato cylinders 3cm long and I would see if the cylinders increased or decreased in mass. I used salt solution in three different concentrates: 0.0M, 0.5M and 1.0M. I put 20cm3 of each concentrate into 3 different boiling tubes, which were then placed in test tube racks....   [tags: Papers]

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Measuring Light Intensity

- Abstract: To investigate whether the relationship between light intensity varies inversely with the square of the distance holds truth in real-life situations and or under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, techniques utilised in the experiment included measuring the distance from the light source to the light sensor, recording the light intensity of a light source and recording observations with accuracy. The light from the light source that passes through the cardboard cylinder tube changes as the distance from the light sensor increases....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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The Capitalist System

- While capitalism is prevailing in the modern society, the issue on whether an amoral profit driven capitalist system is good for the society or not has been raised. Some believe that an amoral capitalist system is the best way to organize individuals together to serve the society. However, others argue that a amoral capitalist system will harm the society instead of benefit it. In this essay, I will be presenting the view of two neoclassical economists, Ricky Griffin and Adam Smith, who support the idea on the amoral capitalism is good for the society....   [tags: Economic System, Amoral Capitalist System]

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The Ford Mustang

- A highly popular muscle and sports car, the Ford Mustang functions as a daily driver, weekend warrior, and a show winning work of mechanical art. Whether someone just needs a basic transportation to get from point A to point B, an eight second quarter-mile beast, or a show stopping work of power and beauty, Ford has produced a Mustang for every need. The Mustang got its name from the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane (Harris). The “five generations” evolved each year model until, in response to the 1971-1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept in 1974 (Bowling)....   [tags: History, Sports Car]

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Cyrus The Great

- Cyrus the Great was one of the greatest emperors in the history of the world. He was born in Anshan, a city in the country of Persia. He was born in the year 600 BC. Cyrus was part of the Achaemenid family house. He was named after his grandfather who was a king named Cyrus I. His father’s name was Cambyses I. When Cyrus was around ten years old, people noticed that he did not act like a normal herdsman’s son. People noticed that he was too noble to be a herdsman’s son. As Cyrus’s age increased, he found a wife....   [tags: anshan, persia, achaemenid family ]

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The Gas Laws

- ... In terms of each other, the pressure-volume law states that “the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant temperature varies inversely with the applied pressure when temperature and mass are constant”. Another way to identify it, is saying that their products are constant, PV=C. Then you can eventually derive the theory of “pressure goes up, when volume goes down” and vice versa. The next gas law, is Charles’s Law, which states “that the volume of a given amount of gas held at constant pressure is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature....   [tags: properties, compressibility]

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The Effect Of Temperature On The Temperature Of Degrees And At Which All Particle Motion Stops ( Absolute Zero )

- PURPOSE The purpose of the experiment is to determine the temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which all particle motion stops (absolute zero). MATERIALS Before assembling the materials, put on safety glasses FIRST, then prepare a clean, dry workspace (away from food) with all of the necessary materials. 1/8 cup water small pan of ice water 1 empty aluminum soda can Tongs or oven mitt Borosilicate glass beaker (600 mL) #1, 1-hole rubber stopper 6” test tube Celsius thermometer 50-mL graduated cylinder Stove top Ice Bucket or large pot Gloves Goggles PROCEDURES SAFETY FIRST: Since you will be heating wate...   [tags: Temperature, Celsius, Absolute zero, Fahrenheit]

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Random And Systematic Errors Are Both Factors That Affect The Reliability And Accuracy Of The Results

- Errors Random and systematic errors are both factors that can affect the reliability and accuracy of the results respectively. As all the graphs contained outliers, and hence, scatter, this indicates that random errors were present. Such errors may result from the inconsistent masses of the Alka Seltzer tablets. As these tablets were cut manually with a knife, it is unlikely that the mass of each half of an Alka Seltzer tablet would be the same. Thus, when using the tablets to react with HCl, the true number of tablets reacting would have not been the same as the number denoted for the trial, and with each repeated trial for the same number of tablets reacting, the reacting mass and ratio wo...   [tags: Chemical reaction, Reaction rate, Measurement]

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Tragic Heroes, Joe and Chris Keller, Portrayed in All My Sons

- A tragic hero can be defined by several different factors; the hero usually has a major flaw that prevents him from seeing the truth that lies in front of him, which contributes to the character’s peripeteia due to mistaken judgement. This mistake then leads to achieving anagnorisis, usually at the end of the play, but is too late to change anything, and results in death. Both Joe and Chris Keller constitute as being tragic characters of All My Sons because they both make very tragic mistakes and are driven by the disastrous events that begin before the play....   [tags: All My Sons]

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Science Versus Religion in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds

- Martians are trying to take over the world. We humans cannot defeat them. Even with our superlative weapons we are not managing to defeat the Martians. At the ends of the novel little tiny microorganisms are managing to defeat these Martians. The key themes and ideas are Industrialization, Imperialism and science vs. Religion. Industrialization means using off weapons or machines. This is shown in the Novel by H.G. Wells that the Martians are killing the human race by using off their machines and weapons....   [tags: War of the Worlds]

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Describing 7.3 L Injectors and How They Are Put Together

- This senior research project is describing how 7.3 litre injectors and how they are put together, how they operate. This project will teach you all about 7.3 litre injectors, test them, and know how they work. There are many parts to an injector, internal and external. All the parts have a very specific job of what they do and how they do it. All the parts work together and with some oil pressure your injector fires. There are many internal parts to the injector. Starts with a barrel then moves down to a plunger then there is a check valve, below that is a spacer with the nozzle springs inside of it, lastly is the nozzle....   [tags: senior research project]

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Enthalpy Of The Molar Mass And Absolut Value Of Enthalpy

- When graphing the results the absolute value of enthalpy was used as enthalpy of combustion is always negative. Therefor in order to create a clear trend that is easy to comprehend the absolute value was used otherwise the axis would be upside down in comparison to a conventional graph. Via the use of the graph we can see a clear linear trend between the molar mass and Absolut value of enthalpy. This indicates that as the molar mass is increased the enthalpy becomes more negative. A linear trend can also be plotted for the published values of enthalpy that various alcohols produce....   [tags: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Ethanol, Combustion]

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How Yeast Is Used As A Leavening Agent For Baking

- Introduction Yeast is a single-celled microorganism that is often used as a leavening agent for baking. Yeast is a common leavening agent because it produces carbon dioxide that allows dough to rise; it also develops the dough’s flavor from fermentation when it produces different flavorful byproducts. In order to understand yeast, it is important to know about fermentation because it is the crucial process that drives yeast to metabolize sugar.1,2 Objective For this lab, we determined the amount of ATP that was produced from baker’s yeast from the amount of CO2 produced when glucose was reduced....   [tags: Gas, Ideal gas law, Pressure, Carbon dioxide]

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Determining The Attainment Of Ideal Performance Of The System

- dwell on the factors that preclude the attainment of ideal-performance of the system. Analysis based on the combined first and second law of thermodynamics commonly known as availability analysis or exergy analysis is particularly suited for achieving more efficient resource use since it enables the locations, types and true magnitudes of waste and loss to be determined. This information is quite helpful for the design of thermal systems, for directing the efforts to reduce the sources of inefficiency in the existing systems and evaluate system economics....   [tags: Internal combustion engine, Diesel engine]

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Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff

- Title : Comparison of Chemical Composition of Various Food Stuff Introduction Carbohydrate is a macromolecule that consists of atoms of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen. The carbohydrates or saccharides exists in 4 groups, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Starch is among one of the polysaccharides and it consists of a large number of units of glucose molecules joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch consists of two types of molecules , the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin....   [tags: of cells and molecules]

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Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme activity

- Enzymes are efficient proteins which play a part in cellular metabolic processes. Enzymes have the ability to improve the rate of reactions among living organisms. (Phillips, 2009) Although they work as a part of the reaction, they do not go through lasting alterations and therefore remain unchanged by the end of the reaction. They can only alter the rate of reaction. (Royal Society of Chemistry) Enzyme activity was first studied in a test tube in 1833 by Payen and Persoz. Temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, as well as the presence of any inhibitors or activators are all factors which affect the rate at which enzymatic reactions occur....   [tags: science experiments, ]

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Gun Control and Banning in the US

- ... A shotgun used multiple projectiles and is designed to shoot a spread of shot at a moving target for short range. A semi-automatic firearm fires one bullet each time the trigger is pulled. It ejects the shell of the fired bullet and automatically loads another bullet for the next pull of the trigger. A fully automatic firearm, sometimes called a machine gun, fires multiple bullets with the single pull of the trigger. Second Amendment A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed is our second amendment of our Constitution....   [tags: Weapons, Controversy]

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Factors That Affect The Enzyme Activity Rate

- Enzyme activity rates differ depending upon the type and concentration of extracts and distilled water. Previous experiments have shown that starches in greater concentrations have high enzyme activity. With that, it can be hypothesized that sweet potatoes have a higher enzyme activity level than that of carrots. Materials and Methods Three different sweet potato and carrot samples were finely diced up separately, using a scalpel. Upon cutting them into smaller pieces, they were measured into 50 gram quantities using a scale....   [tags: Starch, Potato, Sweet potato, Dietary fiber]

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The Effect of Increasing or Decreasing the Concentration of HCL on the Speed of Reaction between HCl and CaCO3

- The Effect of Increasing or Decreasing the Concentration of HCL on the Speed of Reaction between HCl and CaCO3 Coursework HCl + calcium carbonate ® calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water. HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) [IMAGE]CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Aim The aim is to investigate the effect that increasing or decreasing the concentration of the HCL has on the speed of reaction, between HCl + CaCO3. We will determine the speed/ rate of reaction by measuring the amount of CO2 given off in a set time....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

- The Effect of Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid I am going to be investigating the effect of varying the concentration of Hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction between Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. Chemical reactions can be affected by: Ÿ Changes in the surface area of solid reactants Ÿ Changes in concentration Ÿ Changes in pressure (with gases) Ÿ Changes in temperature Ÿ Catalysts Ÿ Light But I am changing the concentration, as it is the most practical experiment to carry out in a school laboratory....   [tags: Papers]

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The Importance of the Ferrari Company

- By the 1920s, the world had already begun mass manufacturing automobiles for both the general public and private racing. However, there were only several different automobile companies present at the time, with only two in Italy. It wasn’t until the later 1920s, where Ferrari, a well-known sports car company today, joined the ranks of Fiat and Alfa Romeo. With the birth of Ferrari at a pivotal time in history, Enzo Ferrari was able to an extremely successful automobile company that is still being manufactured today....   [tags: manufacturing, automoblies, company]

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Analysis Of Brent Sommerhauser 's Arch

- A pen and a pencil are not merely tools used to create something, it’s a barrier between the actual artists and their work; stated an artist called Brent Sommerhauser. One of his artworks is called “Arch,” and it technically wasn’t even created by him; Sommerhauser created a machine that produced what he calls “Arch.” The machine was a vacuum like cylinder that would create a small wind storm inside the cylinder when activated. Sommerhasuer would tape paper on the inside of the cylinder and would toss in pencils after....   [tags: Pencil, Graphite, Art, Meaning of life]

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What Does The Demand For Oxygen?

- Introduction: Pollutants such as sewage, agricultural runoff, and organic industrial effluents decrease dissolved oxygen levels due to the decomposition process that takes place after they enter the water. Organisms such as fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms work to break down the dissolved organic materials, and will take in oxygen from the environment to do so. This lab was designed to test how long it takes yeast, a representation of microorganisms, to break down milk, a representation of organic waste....   [tags: Oxygen, Water, Carbon dioxide]

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Concept And Applications Of Density Measurements

- 8 Density is the ratio between mass and volume, the unit of density for solid or liquid in the metric system is measured in g/ml or g/cm^3. Mass is the quantity of matter in a particular object, the unit for measuring mass of an object is represented in kilogram (kg) or gram (g). Volume is the certain amount of space occupied by an object, the unit for measuring volume of a particular object is either represented as millimeter (ml) or cubic centimeter (cm^3). The purpose of this laboratory investigation is to provide an introduction to the concept and applications of density measurements....   [tags: Measurement, Density, Volume, Mass]

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The Culture Of Beauty And Courtship

- The Nacirema tribe has been put under scrutiny because of their strange believes and ritual practices. However, after studying certain aspects of their rituals and daily practices it has become clear that beauty and courtship is the driving force behind many of the things they do. In the Nacirema culture they believe that they body is flawed at birth. However most do not partake in adjusting their flaws until they are much older. The members of this tribe will take drastic measure to fixes their flaws to achieve the beauty they desire....   [tags: Human skin color, Skin, Sun, Woman]

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Operating Diesel Engines

- Engine brakes have not always been around, in fact they came about almost 65 years after the first successful operating diesel engine. And since their introduction, they have become a staple in larger diesel engine applications. The engine brake came about from a rocky start dating back to 1931, when Clessie L. Cummins and his crew had a near death experience. This experience led him to start thinking about how to use the engine as both a means to propel a vehicle uphill and to be able to control it better on steep down grades....   [tags: engine brakes, engine retarders]

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The Effect of Surface Area on the Rate of Reaction Between Catalase from a Potato and Hydrogen Peroxide

- The Effect of Surface Area on the Rate of Reaction Between Catalase from a Potato and Hydrogen Peroxide Aim To find out the relationship between the surface area of a potato chip and the rate of reaction when hydrogen peroxide is put in with it. Variables As I do this experiment the thing I am going to be changing is the surface area of the potato chip, first I will put it in the beaker as a whole (3cm chip) then I will start cutting it into smaller pieces and repeating the experiment....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Changing the Concentration of Sucrose on the Movement of Water into a Potato

- The Effect of Changing the Concentration of Sucrose on the Movement of Water into a Potato Introduction Aim 1. To use different concentrations of sucrose solution to determine the internal concentration of the potato. 2. To use different concentrations of a solution more dilute than the internal concentration of the potato to find out what the effects of different sugar concentrations have on the movement of water into the potato. Theory ====== Osmosis is the movement of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution, through a partially permeable membrane, until the concentrations are equal....   [tags: Biology Lab Report]

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How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips

- How the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction on marble chips Background: These different speeds of reaction are referred to as their rates. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Particles have to collide in order to react, and the have to collide hard enough as well. This is called the collision theory. When the temperature is increased the particles all move quicker. If they are moving quicker then they are going to have more collisions....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid?

- How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. Secondary resources: Chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other, with sufficient energy to react, this is called the collision theory. The minimum amount of energy required to cause this reaction is called the Activation energy. There are four main factors which affect the rate of reaction. The first factor is: Temperature of reactants: When the temperature increases the particles move around faster (because they have more energy)....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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The Effect of Different Amounts of Sodium Chloride on the Displacement of Oxygen

- DESCRIPTIVE TITLE The Effect of Different Amounts of Sodium Chloride on the displacement of oxygen. INTRODUCTION The dependability of the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction is based on two factors: the substrate concentration and the concentration and action of the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction (Vander, et. al., 2001). Enzymes are catalysts that produce chemical reactions in cells. Enzymes which are large proteins perform a reaction which acts upon a substance known as a substrate. When combined, the substrate bonds to the active site on the enzyme creating an enzyme-substrate complex....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Investigation of the Effect of Concentrations of Sucrose Solutions on Potato Tuber Cells

- Investigation of the Effect of Concentrations of Sucrose Solutions on Potato Tuber Cells Aim: To find the rate of reaction between different concentrations of Sodium Thiosulphate and a constant concentration of Hydrochloric acid and to follow the speed at which Sulphur is formed. Hypothesis: Rate of reaction is determined by the concentration of reactants. The hypothesis is that the rate of reaction of Sodium Thiosulphate with a constant concentration of Hydrochloric acid will increase as the concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate increases....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating The Rate Of Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid

- Investigating The Rate Of Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid Planning I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use concentrations of 50cm3 using different volumes of water and acid. Introduction I am investigating how the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid is altered when the concentration is changed. This is the word equation for my investigation, Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Carbon + Water [IMAGE]Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide The symbol equation for my investigation is, [IMAGE]CaCo3 + 2HCL CaCL2 + CO2+ H2O...   [tags: Papers]

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The Analysis of Spinach Pigmentation During Photosynthesis (biology Lab Report)

- The Analysis of Spinach Pigmentation<p> During Photosynthesis <p> University of Alabama<p> I. Introduction:<p> "Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; it occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes" (Campbell, G-16). The formula below is photosynthesis and "the ingredients necessary to make a plant grow" (KoK, 30).<p> 6CO_2 + 6H_2_0,,³ C_6_H_12_O_6_ + 6CO_2<p> Photosynthesis occurs within chloroplasts which are in leaf cells....   [tags: Biology]

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Determining the Correct Equation for the Decomposition of Copper Carbonate

- Determining the Correct Equation for the Decomposition of Copper Carbonate Introduction and background information: Important points to note: ‘At room temperature, 25°C and atmospheric pressure at 1 atmosphere, I mole of any gas will occupy a volume of 24 dm³.’ We will need this to work out how much copper carbonate to decompose to obtain a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide gas. To work out the amount of copper carbonate to use I will need to use the following equations: Number of moles = Mass / Mr PV = nRT P = Pressure V = Volume n = Number of moles R = Gas constant T = Temperature We can substitute n (number of moles) with the fir...   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating the Reaction Between Bromine and Cyclohexane

- Investigating the Reaction Between Bromine and Cyclohexane By adding bromine to a mixture of Cyclohexane and water, and placing the mixture under a bright light and shaking from time to time, Hydrogen Bromide is formed. This reaction is shown below: [IMAGE]C6H12 + Br2 C6H11Br + HBr When the bromine has all reacted and the red colour has gone, the hydrogen bromide can be titrated with sodium hydroxide. This reaction is shown below: [IMAGE]HBr + NaOH NaBr + H2O From this titration I can then work out the HBr formed per mole of Bromine....   [tags: Papers]

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Comparing the Enthalpy Changes of Combustion of Different Alcohols

- Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols What are alcohols. ================== Alcohol is the common family name for the hydrocarbon group alkanols. At least one of the hydrogen groups is replaced by an OH group. They are all organic compounds. The general formulas for the alcohols are: CnH(2n+1)OH Where n represents a number. The first and simplest member of the alkanols family is methanol. Its molecular formula is CH3OH. You can now see that each member of the alcohol family has a different number of carbons in its structure....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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Effect of Temperature on an Enzyme in Hydgrogen Peroxide

- Effect of Temperature on an Enzyme in Hydgrogen Peroxide Introduction. The aim of this investigation is to find out how temperature affects the speed at which the enzyme,Catalase,works best in Hydrogen Peroxide.I hope to achieve reliable results that will confirm my predictions. I predict that:- · By increasing the temperature of the Hydrogen Peroxide,the Catalase will react faster. This is because the particles have more energy so they will move and react at a faster rate....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Sodium Chloride on a Potato Chip

- The Effect of Sodium Chloride on a Potato Chip To investigate what happens to a potato chip's weight when placed in different concentrations of Sodium Chloride INTRODUCTION:~ ============== Osmosis is defined as 'the movement of water molecules from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane' (Collins, 1999). A semi-permeable membrane is a membrane that partially allows liquid to pass through. In the case of the experiment I am carrying out, the potato chips have small holes in their membranes, which only lets some water molecules flow in and out of the solution and potato chips depending o...   [tags: Papers]

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Exploring the Properties and Functions of Enzymes

- Exploring the Properties and Functions of Enzymes Introduction In this experiment I will attempt to investigate how the change in temperature effects the catalyse reaction and what the optimum temperature is. Key factors Key factor (variable) Reason for controlling How it is going to be controlled Temperature of hydrogen peroxide H202 I am going to control this variable because if the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide was higher or lower then the right temperature the test wouldn’t be fair and my results could be affected because a different temperature would r...   [tags: Papers]

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Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase

- Effect of Substrate Concentration on Catalase Aims This is an experiment to examine how the concentration of the substrate Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme Catalase. Background Information Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules, which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reaction within the cell. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver....   [tags: Papers]

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Speeding up the Rate of Photosynthesis

- Speeding up the Rate of Photosynthesis Outline: The aim of my experiment is to find a factor that will speed up the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis need light to work, so light therefore should speed up the rate of photosynthesis. I will do an experiment to see if this works. I will place a piece of cut pondweed into a beaker containing water and sodium hydrogen carbonate. A lamp will be shined on to the pondweed and the amount of bubbles released from the plant will be counted....   [tags: Papers]

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Acids And Bases Are Everywhere

- Introduction: Acids and bases are everywhere. From things you drink to things you wash your laundry with, that item is probably an acid or a base. An Arrhenius acid is a molecular substance that when reacted with water will produce hydrogen ions(H+) as the only cations. An Arrhenius base is another molecular substance that when reacted with water will produce hydroxide ions((OH-) as the only anions. Acids and bases have different pH ranges so it isn’t hard to differentiate them. The pH of an acid will always be less than 7....   [tags: Sodium hydroxide, Acid, Titration, Base]

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Investigation of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

- The purpose of this investigation is to record the amount of time taken for a reaction to occur when sodium thiosulphate is mixed with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + S + SO2 +H2O Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), after reacting with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) produces yellow sulphur, which is the cause of the solution becoming cloudy. The amount of time taken for the reaction to occur is known as the reaction rate. The rate of a reaction can be commonly explained by Collision Theory....   [tags: Chemistry, observation]

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Investigating Osomotic Potential of Potato Cells

- Investigating Osomotic Potential of Potato Cells Apparatus ========= Apparatus Use Boiling tubes To put the chips an solution in Potato To get the chips Cork borer/rod To cut the potato into chips Distilled water To dilute sugar Sucrose solution To show the process of osmosis Test tube rack To put the boiling tubes in Blade To cut the chips to the correct size Cutting mat To cut the chips on Measuring cylinder To measure out the solution Ruler To measure the length of the chips Method ====== I will first collect all of my apparatus....   [tags: Papers]

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The Physics of Turbo Chargers

- Do you want your car to pick up speed faster. How about adding a turbo booster on that engine under your automobiles hood. A turbo charger is a very efficient way to gain power. To fully understand the function of this component, lets look at the physics behind it. The Ideal Gas model has much to do in turbo chargers. I will explain the theory and components like the compressor, turbine, intercooler, wastegate, and the BOV. Matter is assumed to be composed of an enormous number of very tiny particles which are indestructible....   [tags: Turbo Chargers Engines Essays]

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Investigating Viscosity

- Investigating Viscosity Aim --- To investigate how the temperature of a fluid affects its viscosity. Method ------ Apparatus Required ------------------ * Water bath * Thermometer * Measuring cylinder * Steel ball bearing * Micrometer * Balance * Honey (100cm3) * Stopwatch * Ruler Plan ---- * Measure the radius of the ball bearing and also find its weight. * Find the mass of the honey. Weighing an empty measuring cylinder and then the same cylinder with the honey in it does this....   [tags: Papers]

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Calorimetry: How to Count Your Food

- The calorimeter is a large round silver cylinder with a smaller cylinder inside. It has 3 holes around the bottom edge of the larger chamber. The smaller chamber is held at the top by a metal rod the goes through both chambers. Below the small chamber, there is a cork with a needle sticking straight up from it (that is where you place the food to be tested). The small chamber has a thermometer in it which measures the temperature of the water if you were to use it. The top of the small chamber is covered by aluminum foil to preserve heat transfer....   [tags: food, chamber, weight]

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Chemistry and Technology in Biodiesel

- ... The diesel engine was originally intended to run on bio-fuel such as vegetable oil, rather than the petroleum-based diesel fuels mainly used today. Therefore society did not know what it was like to run petroleum-based diesel fuel before biodiesel was invented. Biodiesel gives a cleaner diesel fuel to run in vehicles. It does not give off the bad pollutions like a petroleum-based diesel fuel when burned. Therefore it is affecting society in a positive way, by not polluting the air. The resources to make biodiesel are organic, it is a renewable resource so, practically the resources will never run out to make the fuel so resources do not affect the fuel from being made....   [tags: cleaner fuels for internal combustion engines]

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The 2014 C-Class Mercedes Benz

- Individuals who are looking for a value-oriented vehicle that projects a luxurious image should look at the 2014 C-Class Mercedes Benz. This class of Mercedes is a good choice for an automobile that has a variety of features. Engine options range from a turbo-charged four cylinder to a V-8 for those who are desiring high-performance. Consumers have the choice of riding in a coupe or compact sedan. The 2014 C-Class Mercedes Benz offers a refreshed design last seen with the 2012 model. This was an update that makes the C-Class feel like a modern design all over again....   [tags: good choice, automobile, luxuries image]

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Internal Combustion Engines

- Internal Combustion Engines An internal-combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a heat engine is an engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The internal- combustion engine should be distinguished from the external- combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, which burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces mechanical motion....   [tags: Engine Cars Mechanics Essays]

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Rates of Reaction

- Rates of Reaction Introduction: In class we are doing an experiment on rates of reaction. We will do this experiment using the chemicals Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric acid, CaCo + Hcl. We will use five different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and find out which is the correct concentration to use with out in being too reactive or not reactive enough. For this experiment to work there are many things that must happen; The particles must collide together and the particles will then have enough energy to start a reaction....   [tags: Papers]

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The Catalase Experiment

- The Catalase Experiment Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out what affect the temperature has upon the speed of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide when a biological catalyst is used; the enzyme catalase. Back ground: ============ Hydrogen peroxide is a decomposition reaction. This means that the hydrogen peroxide, if left for long enough, will eventually decompose. Hydrogen peroxide → Hydrogen + Oxygen 2H2O2→2H2O + O2 (Aq) (L) (G) Using a catalyst can speed up this reaction....   [tags: Papers]

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Exploring the Effects of Gibberellic Acid on the Germination of Cereal Grains.

- Introduction: Gibberellin is a plant hormone that is involved in the production of amylase which is vital for the conversion of starch into maltose into glucose molecules required for the embryo to grow. It does this by “regulating the genes that are involved in the synthesis of amylase. In barley seeds, it has been shown that the application of gibberellin causes an increase in the transcription of mRNA coding for amylase”. 1(Jones, p.120) Below is Diagram 1 showing the longitudinal section through a barley seed, outlining the process undertaken for the conversion of starch into maltose, by the action of seed embryo synthesis initiating germination, and the production of gibberellin....   [tags: Biology, Chemistry, science]

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The Earliest Examples of Welding: Bronce Age and The Middle Age

- The earliest evidence of welding dates back to the Bronze Age. The earliest examples of welding that have been found to date are welded gold boxes belonging to civilizations that thrived during the bronze age. There is evidence supporting the fact that even the Egyptians developed a form of welding. Several of their iron tools were made by welding. During the Middle Ages, a set of blacksmiths came to the forefront, crafting tools, weapons and other necessities. Blacksmiths of the Middle Ages welded various types of iron tools by hammering....   [tags: welders, blacksmith, welding methods]

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Do Diesels Have More Torque And Horsepower Than Gas Engines

- Do diesels have more torque and horsepower than gas engines. Diesel engines have more torque out of them because they have more compression. They have a compression ratio of (17:10) (Schifsky). This ratio explain the diesel and air mixture in the engine of a diesel engine. Gas engine has quit a bit less compression. They have (9:1) compression ratio (Schifsky).Gas engine has less compression with gas and air in the engine chamber. Gas engines have a slight advantage on horsepower because they can turn more rotations per minutes (RPM)....   [tags: Internal combustion engine, Diesel engine]

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The Progression of the Gasoline Powered Engine

- The gasoline powered internal combustion engine has changed the way we live. It has made it possible for us to work more efficiently, get from place to place faster, and it has revolutionized the way we spend our leisure time. The invention of the gasoline engine has made it possible for people to enjoy sports that could have never been dreamed up before. So, the question in mind is how has the progression of the gasoline powered engine been adapted to go from automobiles and industry to motor sports, specifically ATV riding and racing....   [tags: Informative Essay]

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William George Armstrong and The Hydraulics System

- Although, hydraulics are known to be used as far back as the Hellenistic age, the Proper named father of hydraulics is William George Armstrong. Hydraulics systems work in a very simple and easy to understand way. Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. When Force acts on a small area it can create a much larger force by acting on a larger area by virtue of hydrostatic pressure, Allowing large amounts of energy to be carried by a small flow of highly pressurized fluid....   [tags: Bernoulli's law and Pascal’s Law]

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Molecular Aspects of Biofilm

- Almost all bacteria are known to have certain stage of life where they live in form of biofilms. A biofilm is nothing but cluster of cells embedded within a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to a living or inert surface (Costerton et al, 1995). Development of biofilm begins with the attachment of planktonic bacteria to a surface, initially through weak and reversible Van der Waals forces and then anchors itself irreversibly by cell adhesion structures such as pili. The primary colonizers facilitate the arrival of other cells by producing polymeric adhesion matrix that also holds the biofilm together (Costerton et al, 1995)....   [tags: Biology, Cluster of Cells]

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Archimedes and Fluid Mechanics

- Archimedes and Fluid Mechanics Fluid mechanics studies the behaviour of liquids and gases at rest or in the motion. It can be divided into 3 different areas; fluid statics research on fluids at rest, fluid kinematics that investigates fluids in motion, and fluid dynamics that analyses the effect of forces on fluid motion. The second and especially the third areas are greatly used on both solved and partly solved problems. The study of fluid mechanics is significant to engineers; because the main interest of engineers is to solve industrial problems in the applications of fluid mechanics....   [tags: liquid, gas, archimedes screw, motion, rest]

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Description of Rotary compressors

- Rotary compressors have shown to have a good mechanical performance with quieter and smoother operation, thus are widely used in many applications. However, the critical factors affecting the overall efficiency of the compressors are mainly the mechanical losses. Friction losses in rotary compressors do not only reduce the mechanical efficiency, but also reduce the reliability and life-span of the compressor, (Teh and Ooi, 2009c). In most of the rotary compressors, sliding components usually possess high relative velocities hence high friction which limits their mechanical performance....   [tags: refrigeration, scroll compressor, rolling piston]

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The History of Cryptography

- ... This provided the key for historians to translate ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs which, at this time, was considered a dead language for over 1500 years. (“History of the Rosetta Stone”, 2014) During the medieval times the Arabs made significant advances in cryptography and cryptanalysis. The most significant of these was the introduction of the Frequency Analysis technique around 800 AD. This was considered one of the greatest advances in cryptanalysis until the beginning of WWII. (“Medieval Cryptography”, 2014) Frequency Analysis works on the assumption that in any language certain letters appear with more frequency then others....   [tags: protecting data through encryption]

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Investigation Based And Project Based Learning

- Inquiry based and project based learning in my classroom Inquiry instruction has been the cornerstone of my instructional philosophy from the very beginning of my career as an educator. My Science training before becoming an educator, my love for science, and importantly, my teacher training experiences all convinced me long ago that inquiry instruction was vital for success in students learning science. Therefore, no matter what the particular instructional delivery, I have always tried to build inquiry into my lessons....   [tags: Experiment, Design of experiments, Ball]

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Measurements Of Weights, Volumes And Ph

- Measurements of Weights, Volumes and pH: Concentration, expressed as molarity, is defined as the amount of molecules or ions in a fixed volume of a particular substance. In order to make the desired concentration of a solution, the solute is weighed with the help of a balance or scale and then completely dissolved into the solvent; it then goes through a volume adjustment to ensure the desired concentration is achieved. The concentration of the solution can be represented in many ways, by percentage of weight, percentage of volume or parts per million (ppm)....   [tags: Acid dissociation constant, PH, Acid]

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The Effect of Different Strength of Salt Solutions on Potato Cells Through Osmosis

- The Effect of Different Strength of Salt Solutions on Potato Cells Through Osmosis An Investigation to find out how different strengths of salt solution affect potato cells through osmosis. Aim I aim to investigate the effect of different concentrations of salt solution on potato cells when osmosis occurs. Introduction I intent to set up this experiment using equally sized cylinders of potato submerged in salt solutions of different concentrations. I will then observe the percentage change in mass over a set period of time....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating Rates of Reaction

- Investigating Rates of Reaction A reaction is when the particles from two substances react together to form or give off a new substance. The rate of reaction is how fast or how slow a reaction goes. Plan ==== For this investigation, I am going to investigate how concentration affects the rate of a reaction. To do this I am going to use marble chips (CaCO3 ) and Hydrochloric acid (HC1) along with water (H2O) and record how long it takes for the marble chips to react with several concentrations of acid, after a certain length of time....   [tags: Papers]

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Invention of the Automobile

- Invention of the Automobile In the beginning, man’s only form of transportation was his own feet. Later, to comfort his journey on foot, was the invention of footwear. Through envy of the speed of other animals he would learn to tame these animals. People who live in the desert ride atop camels. The people who live in the frigid climates travel by dogs. Some people from places like India ride elephants. But the must widely used form of transportation by animal power was by horse. Man would soon develop boats and ships to travel long distances over water and time would flow like the rivers and hundreds of years later, in the late 1700s steam power became the new craze....   [tags: Papers]

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The Life Of Archimedes

- Archimedes, considered on of the greatest minds of the ancient world was born on the island of Sicily in the Greek city of Syracuse in the year 287 B.C.. Syracuse at the time was an independent Greek city-state with a 500-year history. He was the son of Phidias who was a Greek Astronomer and Mathematician. All that we know about Archimedes comes from his existing manuscripts, and from ancient historians such as Plutarch and Cicero among others centuries after his death. Considering the length of time between Archimedes death and the historians' accounts, along with the nonuniformity of their writings, some details of his life have to be subject to question....   [tags: Creek Archimedes Biography]

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Internal Combustion Engines

- Most motor vehicles today use an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to give them power to drive down the road; ICEs are a form of a heat engine. Gasoline is burned to push a piston, which in return forces the car down the road. As the gas in the cylinder is ignited and expanded it forces the piston down the shaft. The force is carried through piston, which is connected to a crankshaft. The force moves through the transmission, down the driveshaft, and out the tires. The Otto Cycle is used to turn as much heat into the driving force as possible....   [tags: physics internal combustion engine]

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Diffusion Of Diffusion And Osmosis

- Diffusion and Osmosis Shown In Solutions INTRODUCTION This lab, title Diffusion and Osmosis, was centered around the diffusion across a cellular membrane and how exactly materials move and diffuse in concentrations. Both diffusion and osmosis are forms of movement that are part of passive transport dealing with cell membranes. Diffusion is where the solutes move from an area of high concentration to a low concentration. Water goes through the cell membranes by diffusion. Osmosis is specifically the movement of water through membranes....   [tags: Osmosis, Concentration, Cell wall, Cell membrane]

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The Effect of the Concentration of Acid on the Rate of Reaction

- The Effect of the Concentration of Acid on the Rate of Reaction Aim: To find out how the concentration of an acid affects the rate of reaction. I am reacting different concentrations of HCL acid with the same concentration of sodium thiosulphate. I predict the HCL acid which is 2m, will react faster with the sodium thiosulphate. I know this because of concentration, all the particles have kinetic energy and in order for a chemical reaction to occur, particles in a solution need to collide into one another with sufficient force and energy....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigation into Reaction Time when Hydrochloric acid and Thiosulphate are Mixed

- Investigation into Reaction Time when Hydrochloric acid and Thiosulphate are Mixed Planning Simple plan This is an experiment to find out the reaction time of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid when they are mixed. We will use all equipment as safely as we can and wear goggles, gloves and an apron throughout the experiment. Fair Test I aim to keep the experiments fair tests by keeping everything the same throughout, except the concentration (Molar) of the hydrochloric acid....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effects of Osmosis on Potato Cells

- The Effects of Osmosis on Potato Cells Introduction The aim of this investigation is to see the effect of varying concentrations of glucose solution on the amount of osmotic activity between the solution and a potato chip. An investigation into Plasmolysis in onion cells was undertaken prior to this experiment, in order to gain some knowledge of osmosis to enable a hypothesis to be formed. Preliminary Work and Scientific Knowledge ========================================= Osmosis is defined as the net movement of water molecules from a region in which they are highly concentrated to a region in which they are less concentrated....   [tags: Papers]

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The Determination of a Rate Equation

- The Determination of a Rate Equation Aim --- The purpose of this experiment is to develop a method to determine the rate equation for the reaction between Magnesium ribbon and 2.0mol dm Hydrochloric acid, HCl. Hypothesis and Theory --------------------- When I react the magnesium ribbon with hydrochloric acid they will undergo the reaction according to the equation below: Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) à MgCl (aq) + H (g) For a reaction to be successful the molecules must collide with sufficient kinetic energy in order to surmount the energy barrier, also known as the activation energy....   [tags: Papers]

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Motoring Mischief in Indianapolis

- This is a tale of motoring mischief in Indianapolis, behind the wheel of two modern muscle cars. During a recent trip with our test driver Troy Castaneda, we had the opportunity to get to spend 7 days driving a 2010 Chevrolet Camaro SS with a brief stint in a 2010 Dodge Challenger (V6 base model). We were in town to attend one of Troy’s major karting races and being in the city famous for the Indy 500 we had to have a go at the official pace car of the race, the Camaro SS. Arriving late into Indy, we proceeded to the rental car counter to claim our SS only to find that our car would be unavailable until the next day as it was due for an oil change....   [tags: Automobile Review ]

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The Development of the Genre of Animation in 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs' by Madagascar

- The Development of the Genre of Animation in 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs' by Madagascar The animation genre was, and continues to be one of the most popular genres with adults and children alike. In this essay I am going to explore the genre of animation in depth; looking at techniques used throughout the animation genre, and I am also going to observe the development and changes which have occurred since the very early forms of animation began and also since the very first feature length animation film was made; Snow White (1937)....   [tags: Papers]

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Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium

- Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium The variables that could be used are: 1. Concentration 2. Particle size/surface area 3. Pressure (for reactions involving gas) 4. Temperature 5. Light 6. Presence of a catalyst. I decided to use the concentration of acid as my variable. I used 5 different strengths of hydrochloric acid. These strengths would determine the rates of reactions. I decided to measure the acid in millilitres....   [tags: Papers]

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