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The Model of the Atom

- Humans have attempted to understand the world by coming up with theories, examinations, and investigations to pursue knowledge and discover new things, so that they could have a deeper understanding of what was going on around them. People are still searching for new knowledge by experimenting with new theories and going back to revise some of the old ones, in order to reshape, evaluate, and accept the knowledge that they possess. However, some theories are found to be wrong or partially true, and they have been discarded as knowledge....   [tags: Humans, Knowledge, Atom, Electron]

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What Makes An Atom Of Chemical Element?

- UNIT 2: CHEMESTRY Introduction What is matter. • Everything is made of matter. • Matter occupies space and has a mass • Matter is made of chemicals • Chemicals are made of atoms Atoms What are atoms. It is the smallest unit of matter with properties of a chemical element What is an atom composed of. An atom is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons • PROTONS: It starts with letter “P” to remember that it has positive charges • NEUTRONS: It has NO charge • ELECTRON: It has Negative charges Where are the protons and neutrons located....   [tags: Atom, Chemical bond, Chemistry, Hydrogen]

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The Atomic Model Is Not A Concrete Depiction Of An Atom

- The atomic model is not a concrete depiction of an atom. Scientists cannot base their models on actual observations because the atom is too small to be seen even with the most sensitive instruments. Due to this restriction, scientists have had to come up with a model that accounts for the observations that they make. As new observations are made, the atomic model evolves. The most notable contributions to the atomic model were made by Democritus, John Dalton, J.J. Thompson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Electric charge, Niels Bohr]

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The Diagram Below Shows The Structure Of An Atom

- • The diagram below shows the structure of an atom. It has a nucleus which contains protons and neutrons with electrons orbiting around the nucleus in shells. Atom: • Protons have a +1 charge and relative mass of 1. Neutrons are neutral therefore they don’t have any charge and relative mass of 1. Electrons have a -1 charge and relative mass of 1/1840. In the periodic table atoms are arranged in atomic number order....   [tags: Periodic table, Atom, Chemical bond, Electron]

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The Atom

- The Atom In the spring of 1897 J.J. Thomson demonstrated that the beam of glowing matter in a cathode-ray tube was not made of light waves, as "the almost unanimous opinion of German physicists" held. Rather, cathode rays were negatively charged particles boiling off the negative cathode and attracted to the positive anode. These particles could be deflected by an electric field and bent into curved paths by a magnetic field. They were much lighter than hydrogen atoms and were identical "what ever the gas through which the discharge passes" if gas was introduced into the tube....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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The Complexity of the Copper Atom

- To understand the complexity of the copper atom, there must first be an understanding of the basic structure of a general atom. Atoms are considered to be the simplest of matter; impossible to dice into smaller pieces. There are, however, subatomic particles that are the building blocks of the uncountable atoms that make up the earth: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The positively charge particles (protons) and neutrally charged particles (neutrons) make up the nucleus, the electrons surround the nucleus in a cloud....   [tags: elements of the periodic table, chemistry]

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`` Thank God For The Atom Bomb ``

- In August of 1945, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, completely obliterating both cities, killing well over a hundred thousand people. Days after the second atomic bomb was dropped, the Japanese surrendered and the world’s deadliest war came to a close. Opinions on the bombing vary greatly even today, over fifty years after the event. Some fully support the bombings, citing them as a necessary means to an end of the war, saving thousands of Allied lives....   [tags: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]

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The Universe in a Single Atom

- The Dalai Lama the acclaimed spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism was forced into exile in 1959. He now resides in Dharamsala, India but considers himself to be a citizen of the world. The first of his pragmatic words to make an impression upon me was this statement. “If scientific analysis was to conclusively demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to be false, we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims”. The mere articulation of these words by an eminent religious world leader is enough to cause me to pause and listen with rapture to what this ecumenical gentleman has to disseminate....   [tags: Buddhism ]

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Analyzing the Copper Atom

- An atom has three main particles—the proton, neutron, and electron. The first two particles are contained in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. Electrons, on the other hand, are outside the nucleus in levels called energy levels. Electrons in higher energy levels are located farther from the nucleus. These energy levels are orbitals—regions of space in which the electrons are most likely to lie. Electrons do not lie in orbits—definite paths that chart which way an object goes and where it is....   [tags: chemical elements]

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The Structure of the Atom

- The Structure of the Atom [IMAGE] Basic Atomic Particles : Atoms are made up of the following particles : Protons : Protons are positively charged particles with a mass of one atomic mass unit. They are found in the nucleus at the centre of the atom structure. Neutrons : Neutrons are not charged and have a mass of one atomic mass unit. They are found, with protons at the centre of the atom. Electrons : Electrons are negatively charged particles with a mass of 1/1846th of an atomic mass unit....   [tags: Papers]

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Green Chemistry: Concept of Atom Economy

- The concept of Green Chemistry helps scientists utilize materials found here on Earth to better improve our environment from an internal decadence. With the exponentially increasing number of the human population there creates an enormous strain of the use of our natural resources, which thereby requires a need to produce an alternate source, either through chemical, or machinery means, which then leaks problems, such as pollution, into our environment. However, using the concepts of Green Chemistry, which includes, enhanced atom productivity, and the usage of non-renewable resources along with many others, scientists can better neutralize the damaging effects of pollution in our environmen...   [tags: materials, natural resources, pollution]

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Inside the Atom: The Effectiveness of Nuclear Energy

- INSIDE THE ATOM ONE WORLD ESSAY Fossil fuels are substances of a big energetic content such as coal, oil and natural gas. They are not renewable energy; therefore it is included in the fossil energy. Most of the energy used at the present time comes from fossil fuels. They are used for transport, generate electricity, heat up places, cooking, etc. Even though it has a lot of useful uses it has its disadvantages, one of them is that its use causes the emission of toxic gases that contributes to the air pollution....   [tags: fuels, fission, radiation]

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Atom And Qi

- Atom & Qi The atom is the smallest portion of a substance that is not perceivable by human senses. The notion of atoms was conceived by ancient Greeks and was developed over thousands of years of scientific inquiry. The concept of qi as the most basic substance of which the world (everything) is comprised, was understood by the ancient Chinese. Both ¡¥atom¡¦ and ¡¥qi¡¦ are believed to exist by human beings and both are considered to be unseen objects (until we could see atoms recently). However, they lead to different interpretations of natural phenomena: the concept of the atom was developed in relation to ¡¥materiality¡¦, whereas qi is relavant to ¡¥spirituality¡¦....   [tags: essays research papers]

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- Atoms Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Everything around us is made up of atoms. The atom is more than a million times smaller than the thickness of a human hair. The smallest speck that can be seen under an ordinary microscope contains more than 10 billion atoms. Even though atoms are incredibly tiny, they are made up of even more minute particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are called subatomic particles. Each element has a definite number of subatomic particles, which make up the center of the atom, called the nucleus....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Historical development of the atom

- The notion of the atom all stared about 450 BC when a Greek scholar starting think when can something break on more, when are the pieces at their smallest, this mans name was Leucippus. Leucippus also had pupil who also thought the same way as Leucippus, his name was Democritus. They developed there ideas and when Democritus died his theory summed up briefly was that everything in the world was made of tiny pieced that could not be broken up any more. That how the word atom was derived from the Greek work “atomos” meaning “unbreakable”....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Analysis Of Mary Jo Salter 's ' The First Atom Bomb '

- At 8:15am on August 6,1945, it was a terrible day in the city of Hiroshima, Japan. The first atom bomb was dropped on the city by the United States that left a whole in the city. The author, Mary Jo Salter, explains to the audience how the city tries to cover up what happened, but seems to have a hard time to forget. While this is read, the audience will see the transformation that Salter describes thru imagery, metaphors, and symbolism to help her explain some of the things she encountered. The imagery that the poem depicts help bring the effects caused to life....   [tags: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki]

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President Dwight D. Eisenhower 's Speech, Atom And Nuclear Weapons

- On the date of December 8, 1953, in New York, President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his speech, Atoms for Peace. 1 This speech was addressed to the United Nations Assembly. 2 To this large audience of well-established political leaders, Eisenhower addressed the root of the most pressing fear to envelop the Cold War. This fear was of a possible atomic annihilation that would have resulted from the tensions held between the United States and the U.S.S.R. The root of this fear that was addressed was the continued advancement and storage of atomic and nuclear weapons....   [tags: Nuclear weapon, World War II, Cold War]

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Analysis of the Hydrogen Atom

- Hydrogen (comes from the Greek words, hudôr (water), and gennan (generate)) is one of the simplest elements on earth. It is estimated to make up more than ninety percent of all the atoms, three quarters the mass of the universe. Hydrogen has the highest energy content of any common fuel by weight, but the lowest energy content by volume. Hydrogen is the most abundant gas and the source of all energy that we humans receive from the sun, but is not available on Earth. Our Sun, and most of our stars generate energy by fusioning hydrogen to helium....   [tags: energy, element, resource]

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Biographies on Niels Bohr and Geogr Simon Ohm

- Niels Bohr Born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 7, 1885 to mother Ellen Adler, and father, Christian Bohr, Niels would later go on to be a Nobel Prize winner in the category of physics. He attended the University of Copenhagen, where he studied physics. In 1911 he received his doctorate and left to England to study under J.J. Thomson, the man who discovered the electron. In 1912 he married Margrethe Norlund. Together they had 6 sons, one of which followed in his father’s footsteps and won his own Nobel Prize in physics in 1975 Bohr’s main focus was working on a way to understand the structure of an atom....   [tags: model, atom, energy, electons]

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Weapons of Mass Destruction and Risk Galore

- Weapons of mass destruction, as classified by the FBI, are any destructive devices, chemical or biological agents used with the intention of causing death or injury on a large scale. These weapons have been used in history, but most are banned to due to the extent of destruction caused. The atom bomb, probably the most well-known of these weapons were used sparingly but caused massive damage in the few areas affected. Chemical weapons, agents that can be traced in Syria today, have the potential to spread quickly while causing death and severe injury to those affected....   [tags: War, Atom Bomb, Biological]

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Critical Analyzing From The Four Given Article

- Critical analyzing from the four given article Surname Institution Class Date Designed questions 1. What is matter and energy of molecules and atoms. 2. What is the composition of the molecules and atoms. In the universe, we tend to get that most of the objects consist of matter and energy. The two can be simply analyzed and described. Matter can be described as something in the earth, which can contain mass and can occupy the space. It is thus seen that all the matter tends to contain some objects and a structure, which cannot be broken since they have properties such as the chemical and also the physical properties anthem....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Proton, Neutron]

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The Sulfate And Its Effect On The Environment

- An acid is a proton-releasing compound in an aqueous solution. An acid is the counterpart of basic compounds that take in protons. They can either be strong or weak which is determined by how readily protons are released once in an aqueous solution. Acids have the effect of neutralizing bases as in the depletion of carbonate ions in the ocean. Sulfuric acid, a strong acid, is also prevalent in contributing to ocean acidification as well as nitric acid. A strong acid disassociates all of the protons readily....   [tags: Acid, Chemistry, PH, Atom]

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The Characteristics Of Chitosan From Chitin

- Chitosan is a product obtained from chitin, which has been found in a wide range of natural resources including crustaceans [12, 21, 22] and fungi [11, 18, 23]. The production of chitosan from chitin can be performed by distinct methods[24], but the most common is the process called deacetylation[11, 23] which consists in the removal of the acetyl group and is usually performed with concentrated NaOH at high temperatures[16, 25]. The characteristics of chitosan that may affect its sorption properties should be explain in order to understand the values and limitations of the chitosan used in this experiment....   [tags: Electron, Atom, Coordination complex]

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The Nuclear Theory Of The Atomic Theory

- Many different scientists contributed to the atomic theory. Every single one of them played an important role in creating the atomic theory known today. Around 400 BCE Leucippus was the scientist who originally thought of the atomic theory. Democritus adopted the ideas of Leucippus, his mentor. Democritus soon developed the idea of an atom. Democritus believed everything was made up tiny particles of matter called atoms. He chose this name because in Greek atom means indivisible. After Democritus Isaac Newton was the next scientist to contribute to the atomic theory....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Quantum mechanics]

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Is Scanning A Fundamental Part Of Patient Diagnosis?

- In recent years, CT (Computed Tomography) scanning has become a fundamental part of patient diagnosis. ”The number of CT scans performed by the NHS in England each year has increased from just over 1 million in 1996/97, to almost 5 million in 2012/13” (NHS Choices. 2014). Their growing use has raised concerns about possible cancer risks, particularly when exposing young children. Taking into consideration the fact that CT scans are associated with considerably higher radiation exposures in comparison to conventional radiography (Smith-Bindman et al....   [tags: Atom, Electron, DNA, Photon]

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The Physics Of The Atomic Theory

- The Atomic Theory in its Essence Many people have been involved in making the present Atomic Theory dating back to 460 B.C. The Greek era was filled with a handful of great philosophers, one being the great philosopher Democritus. Democritus was one of the first to propose the existence of an ultimate particle. He used the word “atomos” to describe such a particle because the particles that had been left were invisible. Democritus stated “By convention bitter, by convention sweet, but in reality atoms and void,” giving a meaning that there is no effect without a cause....   [tags: Atom, Neutron, Electron, Proton]

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Descriptive Essay : ' Curious Time '

- The time after recess, ‘curious time’ as it was referred to, was quite the occasion in the emporium. It was often introduced with a bang from an oversized silver canon that sat in the corner of the room. As the little rocks settled into their seats, Mrs. Chert lit the cannon, spraying a rainbow of tiny paper snowflakes into the air. It was a strange tradition in the emporium, but one that was loved none the less. “I used snowflake confetti today,” Mrs. Chert said smiling. “Because something told me snow would be on your minds after recess....   [tags: Water, Atom, Snow, Oxygen]

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The Chemistry Concept Is Taken From The Australian Curriculum, Assessment And Reporting Authority ( Acara )

- Investigation: The chemistry concept is taken from the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, 2015), which is a “Change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat (ACSSU046)”. Checking for prior knowledge • The video begins by engaging the student with something interesting– ice blocks. • The discussion is intended to check for understanding and prior knowledge. • Open questions are used to abstract information. The Experiment • We discuss what might happen when five containers are filled with different ingredients after we put them in the freezer (after we take away the heat)....   [tags: Water, Atom, Solid, Matter]

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What Does The Cells Perform It?

- Photosynthesis What organisms perform it. Most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs. What organelle is needed if it is a eukaryotic cell. The organelle needed to perform photosynthesis in a eukaryotic cell is the chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, the primary pigment used in photosynthesis, and other molecules that function in the photosynthetic production of food. Light Reactions Where do they occur. Light reactions take place in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle, Atom]

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The Higgs Boson Particle

- I feel personally that the discovery of the atom was an important discovery for the world. With the discovery we are now able to answer questions we never even thought to ask. We are also answering questions some people asked long ago. We can now use our vast knowledge of the atom to measure the stars and be able to tell you what the stars are made of. The atomic discovery also helped us find our periodic table of elements. The periodic table of elements is a huge scientific chart that shows important facts with the help of its formation....   [tags: atom, periodic table, aristotle]

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Ionization Energies Of The Atoms

- Ionization energies of the atoms are known to extreme high precision,29 and many MX species have now been studied by PFI-ZEKE methods, giving ionization energies to an accuracy of 0.001 eV or better. Thus, if the BDE of the cation is known, this relation allows the BDE of the neutral molecule to be determined, often to the same accuracy as that of the cationic bond energy. One of the most effective methods of determining the BDE of cations such as MX+ employs guided ion beam mass spectrometry, in combination with collision-induced dissociation (CID) or endothermic reaction....   [tags: Atom, Energy, Molecule, Ion]

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Nuclear Energy: Energy of the Future or Environmental Disaster?

- An atom slams into another, sending a wave of energy outward when it splits. The extremely hot heat wave collides with water, instantaneously turning it to steam. This steam shots up to turn a massive wheel- and electricity is made. This may sound like some cheesy sci-fi movie, but, in fact, is a real process used to make energy around the world. Nuclear power. But many critics and concerned citizens alike argue that it’s not worth it. The controversy around nuclear power only grows each year as the need for clean power increases- but is nuclear power the ‘silver bullet’ to the energy crisis or a risky gamble that we can’t afford to make....   [tags: Physics, Atom, Radioactivity, Uranium]

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Compare and Contrast of Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energy

- Compare and Contrast of Nuclear Energy and Alternative Energy Standard Number Science 3.4.A Today our society is using more energy than ever. With the increase in demand for energy, problems are presented that have to be addressed. One of the biggest and most prevalent problems is the need for clean, renewable, sustainable energy. On the forefront of these problems comes the following solutions: nuclear energy, hydro-electric energy, and photovoltaic energy. With the need of energy in today’s current world, exploring different ways of producing power are necessary....   [tags: atom, hydroelectricity, clean energy]

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How Water Is Important For The Living Organisms

- As we know every living thing needs water to survive .Water (H2O) is the most vital molecule in the cells, it 's made up of two hydrogen atoms and also consists an oxygen atom. Water makes up between 70 percent of the human body, this shows how much water is important to the living organisms. This is the only substance we always come across as a solid, liquid, and a gas, as the temperature increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules multiplies. According to “H.H Mitchell, journal of biological chemistry 158", the brain and heart are composed of 73% water”, this gives us an understanding of how vital water is to us (humans) and all living things....   [tags: Water, Oxygen, Atom, Life]

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The Effect Of Water On The Earth

- Week 2 Essay 1 Kimberly High Water is one of the most critical resources on the Earth that most of us take for granted. When it comes to biological system, water also plays a significant role. Describe the properties of water as they relate to biological systems. We have learned through our reading these past two weeks that live evolved from water as single celled organisms and then gradually through time evolved to land, so it would make since that water would play a very important part of the makeup of many living things on this planet....   [tags: Water, Atom, Hydrogen, PH]

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The Science behing Nuclear Power

- The Science Behind Nuclear Power The nucleus at the center of the atom contains electrons that orbit around it. Tightly crowded protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom (UCS, 2003). Hydrogen is the lightest element containing only one proton. Moreover, uranium is the weightiest natural element containing 92 protons (UCS, 2003). Although the nucleus of an atom is contained with intense force it can be split apart when it is blasted with a neutron. This is known as a process called fission (UCS, 2003)....   [tags: atom, electrons, element, plants]

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The Chemical Equation For Water

- Please choose one of the molecules that we learned about in the readings, and describe it. Water is one of the most common substances on the the planet covering over 70% of the Earth 's surface. We ourselves are also made up of mostly water and it 's a trait shared by all other living organisms. It is unusual in that it can exist in 3 different states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous. At standard ambient temperature and pressure it is a liquid and is almost colourless with little to no smell or taste of it 's own....   [tags: Water, Oxygen, Atom, Hydrogen]

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The Physics Of Atoms Are Everything

- Atoms are everything, literally. Every physical thing in existence is comprised of atoms. “Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects… There are 90 naturally occurring kinds of atoms. Scientists in labs have been able to make about 25 more.” (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education). “Atoms are made out of three basic particles: protons(carry a positive charge), neutrons (carry no charge), and electrons (carry a negative charge and circle the nucleus).” (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of Science Education)....   [tags: PH, Acid, Oxygen, Atom]

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The Science Of Chemistry

- The Science Of Chemistry There are many different types of sciences. Every type is important. Some sciences were actually created by other sciences. Chemistry is one of the main sciences that actually was the building block for other sciences like Biology. Chemistry does not only happen at school. Chemistry is all around us it's in our everyday life. Chemists are life savers;they create vaccines and medicines for people who need them. Chemists also work with different type of scientists to create different technology that could change the world forever....   [tags: democritus, atom, vaccines]

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IEE Article Review: The Nuclear Fusion of a Hydrogen Atom

- ... Characteristics of such a process would be clean, safe, efficient, and cost effective. The “should be” value of this process is clean energy from a resource that is not usable for any other purpose. A “should be” system would look like is obtain nuclear rod, put it into system, convert nuclear materials to energy, no waste left over. Now for the “as is” section of this process starting with understanding our purpose established in the “should be” section. The reason for the purpose is that we are slowing destroying the earth with the massive amounts of CO2 emissions and if we don’t find an alternative source for energy we will have to either give up harnessing energy all together or keep...   [tags: nuclear plant, laser, alternative fuels]

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Ernest Rutherford and The Gold Foil Experiment

- ... Although this theory was widely accepted, some scientists theorised that Thompson’s model was incorrect, one of them being Hantaro Nagaoka who countered Thompson’s model with the argument that opposite charges cannot infiltrate one another, so the positive charge held by the atom must be focused in the nucleus and the electrons would revolve around the outside. Rutherford’s experiment would prove Nagaoka correct, and reinvent the model of the atom. Hans Geiger, Rutherford’s colleague, built a vacuum tube with a mass of radium at one end, and in the opposite end, a fluorescent zinc sulphide screen to created tiny flashes of light when the alpha particles from the radium hit the screen....   [tags: splitting the atom, plum pudding model]

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The Structure And Function Of The Atomic Model

- The structure and function of the atomic model have been a subject that has had various theories revolving around it. The theory that is the predecessor of modern chemistry started over 2400 years ago, however, it was ignored until the 1800s. The theories about the atomic model ranges from Greek philosophers to 1800s scientists to modern chemists. Bernard Pullman states in his book, “Most of the early philosophers believed that the essence of all things could be reduced to material principles.” In 440 B.C., the Greek philosopher Democritus started to question what ‘matter’ was....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Ernest Rutherford, Proton]

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Major Scientific Discoveries

- Michael Faraday was an English scientist who lived in the 1800's. Faraday always had a interest in being a scientist but because of his low class in society it was almost impossible. His big discovery was that, electricity traveling through a wire gives off an electrical force. He came up with the idea of this when the scientist he worked with was putting a compass on eieither side of a electricfied wire. The needle of the compass the deflected at right angles. Late on he preformed is own experiment to prove this right or wrong....   [tags: electricity, energy, atom]

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Who Influenced The Scientist? How And Why?

- Ernest Rutherford - (1911) Who influenced the Scientist. How and why. JJ. Thompson influenced Rutherford by improving on Thompson plum pudding model and saying that a nucleus is involved in an atom. What part of the Atomic Theory were they investigating. Electrons Nucleus What model did they use to explain their theory?(Draw the model and explain the theory) Rutherford used his gold foil experiment to help explain his theory of atoms. Rutherford’s model is described as the atom having a small, dense yet heavy positively charged core called the nucleus, where almost all of the mass is concentrated....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Neutron, Quantum mechanics]

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The Atoms, Ionic, Covalent And Metallic Chemical Bonds Are Formed

- Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bonding]

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Science Is A Major Part Of Our Lives

- Science has become a major part of our lives. Scientist’s had contributed so much throughout history, without their contribution our way of life as we know it wouldn’t exist. Before I started my paper on John Dalton, I didn’t know the significant impact he had in the field of chemistry and science. Scientists with their research and experiments was able to give us a core understanding of the “Atom”. The knowledge of the “Atom” made it possible for more scientific discoveries to occur. We see our modern world filled with so many advances with technology and science....   [tags: Atom, Chemistry, Chemical element, Physics]

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Atoms Are The Smallest Unit Of A Matter

- Atoms: Atoms are the smallest unit of a matter. It is the basic unit of life which is made of chemical matter. Molecules: Molecules are formed by two or more than two atoms which are held together by chemical bond. They are electrically neutral and are essential for forming an element. Orbits: Orbits are the paths to which an electrons revolves around in an atom. Orbitals: Orbitals are the energy state in an atom which classifies the position of an electron. There are 4 orbitals in an atom s, p, d, & f....   [tags: Atom, Molecule, Electron, Molecular orbital]

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Atoms, Ionic, Covalent And Metallic Chemical Bonds

- Bonding Bonds between atoms affect outer electrons that are shared or transferred to achieve a more stable electrons arrangement as a noble gases. This essay is divided into three main sections it will first describe how the ions, ionic, covalent and metallic chemical bonds are formed. It will then go on to explain the types of bonds which can form given the position of the periodic table and the forces required to hold the molecules together. The final part of the essay will define electron pair repulsion theory and the shapes of molecules....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bonding]

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What An Element 's Chemical Properties From Their Ionisation Energies?

- Can you predict an element’s chemical properties from their ionisation energies. An element’s chemical properties can be predicted by looking at different ionisation energies and comparing them. Ionisation energy (IE) is the energy required to remove valence electrons of an atom. The IE differs depending on the group and period the element is found in, it also increases each time an electron is removed for an atom for it creates a cation which makes electrons harder to remove (Jim Clark, 2012). The IE equation for sodium can be recognised as Na --> Na+ + e- for the first IE, then Na+ --> Na2+ + e- for the IE energy and so on (Ausetute, nd)....   [tags: Periodic table, Atom, Chemical element]

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The Electron : History And History

- The Electron: HISTORY: Joseph John Thomson was born on December 18th, 1856 in Cheetham Hill, United Kingdom. He attended Owens College in Manchester and was encouraged to apply for a scholarship to Trinity College at Cambridge University. He was accepted and later was chosen to be the third Cavendish Professor. Thomson 's discoveries made him one of the most accomplished physicists of his era. In 1906, he won the Nobel Prize in physics for his research on the discharge of electricity in gases. In 1918, Thomson was chosen Master of his old college, Trinity and resigned from his Cavendish position the next year....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Electric charge, Proton]

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The Physics Of Science And Science

- We see our modern world filled with so many advances with technology and science. We usually do not think about science when using a smart phone or google to find information with one click of a button. Do we think about Chemistry when taking an antibiotic medication for an infection. Just about everything involves science and technology, but what would happen if one scientist didn’t discover one theory, a theory that can alter our advance society as we know today. This one man was credited as the founder of chemistry....   [tags: Atom, Chemistry, Chemical element, Physics]

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Atoms And The Atoms Of Atoms

- All matter in the universe is made up of smaller pieces. Materials that cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means are called elements. The smallest particle of a specific element is called an atom of that element. Atoms are made up of nuclei which contain protons and neutrons and an area surrounding the nucleus where electrons exist. Protons are positively charged particles and the number of protons that an atom contains defines what element it is. Neutrons are neutral particles that help to hold the nucleus together....   [tags: Atom, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Chemical bond]

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Physics : The Periodic Table

- The Periodic Table. The Periodic Table is an arrangement of the chemical elements and is one of the most important references for anyone doing chemistry. The elements on The Periodic Table are arranged according to their atomic number and their electronic configuration. The atomic number is listed next to the chemical symbol for the element in the top left corner. The atomic number can also be known as the Proton number of an element. The electron configuration of an atom is the representation the arrangement of electrons that are distributed among the orbital shells and subshells - There are two types of bonding in a...   [tags: Atom, Periodic table, Chemical element]

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Atomic Theories Of The Atomic Theory

- Atomic Theory History The Atomic Theory first came to the surface of science around 400 B.C. by a famous philosopher named Democritus. He actually didn’t create it first, but he was the first man to adopt the Atomic Theory into the world. His Atomic Theory stated that, “ All matter consist of invisible particles called atoms or atomos. The universe consists of two elements that are atoms and the invisible space that the atoms move around in. He also said that the atoms cannot be destroyed, are always moving, and they differ in size, shape and temperature (Democritus).” It took many centuries after Democritus’ discovery of the Atomic Theory, before a new chemist named John Dalton he...   [tags: Atom, Electron, Neutron, Ernest Rutherford]

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A Short Note On Alok Jha Water And How It Is Essential For Life

- According to Alok Jha water is different from most other molecules and some differences make no sense when compared to every other molecule that has similarities in the composition that are close to or are the same as that of water including mass, similar composition, and similar properties. The reasons for wanting to know the properties of materials are so that when you need to do specific processes you can use the best material for the job. Some range from being good solvents to some being good at reducing friction and dissipating heat....   [tags: Water, Atom, Oxygen, Chemical bond]

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Chemistry : Chemistry And Everyday Life

- Chemistry in Everyday Life Alexandra L. Voda Chemistry 1010 November 25, 2016 Abstract Water is one of the most impressive things we deal with. It not only is involved in all processes for life, but it behaves in some unique ways. Water is used every day and is never thought of as an important part of chemistry. One way to demonstrate how unique water is and how it brings chemistry into our everyday lives are icebergs. Icebergs are a wonder to many. Icebergs are giant blocks of ice that just seem to float effortlessly on top of the water....   [tags: Water, Atom, Oxygen, Chemical bond]

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Using The Physical Properties Of The Atoms

- This experiment was to be performed in three parts. The first part was using the physical properties of the “atoms” in the mixture to separate them into individual components. Knowing that physical properties include magnetism, color, size, and density, certain approaches can be taken to properly separate each type. The first thing we did was use the magnet to remove any magnetic atoms. When the atoms attached to the magnet, we were able to remove and isolate them from the rest of the mixture in a neighboring beaker....   [tags: Atom, Chemistry, Magnetism, Chemical bond]

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The Cathode Ray Tube Invention

- The cathode ray tube was invented in 1875 by the name of Sir Williams Crooke. Yet he wasn’t the one to make the big discovery. In 1897, a man by the name of J.J. Thompson conducted a series of experiments to prove the existence of subatomic particles. He wasn’t 100% correct with all of his claims he made but broke the theory John Dalton stated that the smallest form matter could be broken down to was an atom. Having shown the world that there was smaller than an atom, it later caused others to question and dive even deeper....   [tags: Electron, Atom, Electric charge, Proton]

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What is Epigenetics?

- If we imagine that most of us see our genetics as the smallest and most obscure aspect of our being, then epigenetics are an even more minute part of the genetics that make or break us. I picture epigenetics as being the particles that make up an atom. We envision atoms as the smallest possible particle, the one that makes up all matter, alive or dead. And yet, inside the atoms are even smaller particles—the protons, neutrons, and electrons. Although these particles make it no less or no more of an atom, they change the fundamental functioning of an atom, having control over whether it is stable or not....   [tags: atom, neutrons, genetics, dna]

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The Atomic Theory

- The atomic theory is a very broad topic to even begin talking about. Throughout the course of many years it has been revised, more information found and explained all types of ways. The bases of the atomic theory started with what they described as all matter was composed of, what they called, atoms. The word atom originates in Greece coming from the Greece word “atomos” meaning “uncuttable.” Atoms were first discovered when Ernst Rutherford started experiments with electromagnetism and radioactivity in 1911....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Neutron, Proton]

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The Periodic Table Is What All Of The 118 Elements Are Organized On Increasing Atomic Number

- The periodic table is what all of the 118 elements are organized on. All of the elements are sorted in increasing atomic number. Dmitri Mendeleev made the periodic table in 1869 in a way that physical and chemical properties of each element would relate to others in the same period and group. This basically means that the elements repeat certain characteristics, and they are placed in this pattern on the periodic table. The periodic table begins with the element with the lowest atomic number, which is hydrogen, and ends with the elements with the highest atomic number, and in this order, Dmitri Mendeleev discovered the law of periodicity....   [tags: Periodic table, Atom, Electron configuration]

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Physics Of The Atomic Mass

- Everything around us is made from matter, which is made from atoms. To find the amount of subatomic particles in an atom, one must consider the atomic mass, which is used to identify the total amount of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. One must also consider the atomic number which is the number of protons and electrons in the atom. An isotope is an alternative form of atom which contains the same amount of protons and electrons but has a different amount of neutrons; it affects only the atomic mass of the atom when an atom becomes an isotope....   [tags: Periodic table, Atom, Atomic number]

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Chemistry: What is A Complexometric Titration

- Introduction: According to (Khan): A complexometric titration as defined by IUPAC as a volumetric titration where a soluble complex can be formed by titrating a metal ion with a ligand in an aqueous solution and a titrant is one of the reacts used in the titration. [4] M(H2O)n + L = M(H2O)(n-1)L + H20 [4] (Khan): further states, here L are the Ligand and which is formed via the complete replacement of water molecules by other ligands can occur till the formation of the MLn complex. “n” is the coordination number of the metal ion and represents the maximum number of monodentate ligands which can be bound to it [8] Figure 1: The h...   [tags: metal ion, donor atom, molecules]

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Summary Of Alice 's ' Alice '

- Alice in Quantumland Introduction It all starts out when Alice falls into Quantumland through the television screen and encounters a world of photons and electrons. As she herself is not a fermion she is able to get into the same compartment of a train carrying pairs of electrons. Reaching the screen, she is taken up by the photon express. Eventually she enters the Heisenberg Bank, which lends energy to its customers in accordance with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. On leaving through the doors of the bank she finds uncertainty as to where she ends up outside....   [tags: Electron, Atom, Photon, Quantum mechanics]

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The Effect Of Antimatter On The Physics Of The Universe

- Another process to explain Antimatter is Pair Production, basically it 's a reverse of the In physics of the universe, Antimatter is an important theory. To begin with matter is made up of atoms. These atoms are the basic units of chemical elements. Examples of the chemical elements are oxygen, hydrogen, and helium. Every single element has its own number of atoms. The atoms consist of protons, neutron, and electrons. The protons, electrons, and neutrons are the particles.Paul Adrien Maurice l Dirac, a British physicist wrote down an important equation in 1928.He was known as the greatest british theorist since Isaac Newton....   [tags: Electron, Atom, Antimatter, Quantum mechanics]

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Atomic Structure Of Atomic Structures

- Atomic Structure The theory behind atomic structure is one that has been developing now for centuries. It is a topic that has unveiled great discoveries along with great achievements. The diversity of the atomic structure makes it a topic that will never truly be settled; as we come to conclusions on certain theories, new concepts and theories are discovered, therefore leaving a never ending trail towards the advancement of knowledge behind the atomic structure. It is a topic with no limits. Atomic structure can be simplified as the root of everything in ¬¬life....   [tags: Atom, Chemistry, Electron, Electric charge]

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Quantum Physics : Quantum Mechanics

- In the world of subatomic particles, the rules that normally apply to objects that are visible by the human eye are totally disregarded. Subatomic particles behavior can be attempted to be explained by a term called quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics gives the probability of where a particle will be located at, such as point A or point B. It describes atoms or particles, really anything at that level or smaller in a similar way in which relativity describes the laws of how much larger objects behave....   [tags: Quantum mechanics, Electron, Photon, Atom]

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Notes On Properties Of Water

- Properties of Water What is water. Some say it’s an abundant fluid that forms streams, lakes, oceans and even rain but it’s also an important substance in every living creature. Without water, our world would be a deserted wasteland; that is how vital this substance really is. Water is composed of a covalent bond of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. But what does that mean. A covalent bond means two atoms are “sharing” each other. In this case, the hydrogen atoms are indeed sharing the single oxygen atom....   [tags: Water, Atom, Covalent bond, Oxygen]

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The Physics Of Quantum Mechanics

- In 1897, a little more the one hundred years ago, the electron was first discovered. With the discovery of the electron came the discovery of the neutron roughly thirty-five years later. These two discoveries were very important to the furthering of quantum mechanics. Without these discoveries, quantum mechanics would not have become something so important. Quantum mechanics is the branch of mechanics that deals with the mathematical description of the motion and interaction of subatomic particles....   [tags: Quantum mechanics, Electron, Light, Atom]

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A Study On Plant Photosynthesis

- Plant photosynthesis happens in leaves and stems with green stem with a special organelle called a chloroplast. A plant leaf has tens of thousands of cells, and they contain 40-50 chloroplasts. The chloroplast, is an oval-shaped structure, and is divided by membranes into numerous disk-shaped compartments. The disk like compartments, which are called thylakoids, are placed vertically in the chloroplast and look like a stack of plates or pancakes. One stack of thylakoids is called a granum or more than one grana, the grana lie placed in a fluid known as the stroma....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Calvin cycle, Thylakoid, Atom]

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Physics: The Radium Element

- ... This element is a rock therefore it naturally occurs. In 1898, a Polish chemist, Marie Curie and her husband Pierre Curie discovered the element radium. They discovered it from pitchblende. Pitchblende is a mineral comprised mainly of oxides of the element uranium. After noticing that pitchblende was more radioactive than uranium, pitchblende was then separated from it. Marie reasoned that she needed a llot of pitchblende in order to make tiny amounts of radium. One ton of uranium contains only about 0.14 grams of radium....   [tags: periodic table, atom, protons, electrons]

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The First Atomic Theorist

- Believed to be the first atomic theorist, the Greek materialist philosopher Democritus explored the nature of stones in 400 B.C. Democritus split a stone in half and concluded that the two halves have the same properties; the only difference between them and the original was size. However, that observation did not hold forever because the more he split the stone pieces into halves, the tougher the process was. At one point, he tried his best but failed to split a small stone piece. He called it "atomos," which is the Greek word for indivisible....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Quantum mechanics, Proton]

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Studying Biology On The Surface

- Looking at biology on the surface, one may see different organisms interacting with each other and their environments. This view makes biology seem like a mainly large-scale science, however, chemistry forms the basis of biology. If it were not for the atoms and molecules that form life, there would not be such large-scale systems. All matter is formed by three particles: a positively charged proton, a negatively charged electron, and a neutrally charged neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons, and electrons orbit the nucleus....   [tags: Atom, Covalent bond, Chemical bond, Electron]

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The Experiment Of Exothermic Reactions

- The second experiment is exothermic reactions because it gives out heat energy to the surrounding and energy is released more than it absorbed. It also has a negative energy change. In terms of bonds breaking or forming, the first experiment its forming new bonds, because when alcohols are burnt, the reaction is always overall exothermic. Because more energy is released when new bonds are form than is being consumed. If I compared my result to the literature values, are by no means accurate. But I could not have made the experiment completely efficient in the heat transfer....   [tags: Atom, Electric charge, Chemical bonding, Electron]

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Atomic Theory And The Atomic Model

- It is apparent that, during certain areas of history, the atomic models repetitively questioned as new material became available in the study of that field. Specific concepts begin to elevate themselves above others and become dominant as they begin being experimented on. Judging by the the literature on the development of the atomic model, the first speculations began around the ancient Greek and Roman times. The Greek and Roman philosophers speculated, what is the nature of matter, or what is this stuff made up of....   [tags: Atom, Chemical element, Chemistry, John Dalton]

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Graphene Is Amazing And It Will Change Our World

- Graphene Many people have not heard of graphene, well even if they have not they should know because they make it every day. Graphene is that little thing in the middle of your pencil that you use to write down your school work, “But that is Graphite,” people might say when in reality Graphite is layers of graphene stacked on top of each other it a little more chemicals with it. Graphene is amazing and it will change our world. What is Graphene Graphene is often called the miracle material and is made up of Carbon in a honeycomb lattice....   [tags: September 11 attacks, World Trade Center, Atom]

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A Study Of Hair And Application Of Beauty Treatment

- Cosmetology is the study of hair and application of beauty treatment. It involves things such as the chemicals cosmetologist use in your hair and on your face. The central products used are shampoo, hair dye, perms, and make up. It also plays an important aspect in our everyday lives. It is fundamental to understand how important cosmetology is in chemistry. Standard 1 Element d For example, we use hair dye for our hair. It’s a chemical product that is used in chemistry. The chemical name is hydrogen peroxide and ammonia....   [tags: Atom, Covalent bond, Chemical bond, Electron]

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The Creation of the Worlds Deadliest Bomb

- ... He began the search for a determined, smart, and hardworking leader who could supervise and lead the science for the Manhattan Project. Groves first choice was Ernest Lawrence because he was a practical and hardworking scientist which was well known and respected by all scientists. However Lawrence was already doing essential work for the war effort already. Groves rejected other candidates for lots lots of reasons like “too young, uninterested, too theoretical”. Until Groves started looking in to what seemed to be the most unlikely candidate of all Robert J....   [tags: pearl harbor, atom split, chain reaction]

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The Diels Alder Adduct

- Discussion The reaction of (-)-α-phellandrene, 1, and maleic anhydride, 2, gave a Diels-Alder adduct, 4,​7-​ethanoisobenzofuran-​1,​3-​dione, 3a,​4,​7,​7a-​tetrahydro-​5-​methyl-​8-​(1-​methylethyl), 3, this reaction gave white crystals in a yield of 2.64 g (37.56%). Both hydrogen and carbon NMR as well as NOESY, COSY and HSQC spectrum were used to prove that 3 had formed. These spectroscopic techniques also aided in the identification of whether the process was attack via the top of bottom face, as well as if this reaction was via the endo or exo process....   [tags: Nuclear magnetic resonance, Proton NMR, Atom]

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The Manhattan Project

- Before the Manhattan Project, in the beginning there were many advancements in understanding made in the world of physics. These resulted in the recognition of nuclear fission and its potential as an energy source and as a potential weapon. Of these advancements none was more central and important than the development of the nuclear model of the atom, which by the year of 1932 contained a nucleus containing most of the mass of an atom in the form of two particles, protons and neutrons. This nucleus was surrounded by an electron shell....   [tags: physics nuclear atom atomic]

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