Copper is one of the best known elements, and studying its atomic structure aids in understanding why copper has the qualities it does: its fascinating characteristics are all predicted by its atomic structure. All atoms are made of three subatomic particles called the proton, the neutron, and the electron. The proton is positively charged while electrons are negatively charged and neutrons have no charge. Protons and neutrons are large and heavy compared to the electron: both the proton and the neutron have a relative mass of 1, while the electron has a relative mass of 1/1836. The heavy protons are held together in a tiny area in the center of the atom called the nucleus.
The number of protons in an atom defines its element; only atoms with 29 protons are copper atoms, and all atoms with 29 protons are copper atoms. However, there can be isotopes of an element, which are atoms with differing numbers of neutrons. Copper has two stable isotopes: 63Cu and 65Cu. The superscript before the element in an isotope is the mass number of the isotope, which indicates the combined number of protons and neutrons in the atom. A 63Cu atom has a... ... middle of paper ... ...
Neutrons, with a mass also of about one, account for the difference in masses of different isotopes (“Electron Structure Discussion”). Therefore, copper-63 has 34 neutrons, and copper-65 has 36 neutrons. The natural abundance of copper-63 is 69.17%, and the abundance of copper-65 is 30.83% (“Isotopes of Copper”). As for the electrons themselves, they completely fill the first, second, and third shells. In addition, one electron enters the fourth shell.
The three necessary things of every substance are the type of atoms that created it, the method the atoms are positioned, and the method that the atoms are fused to each other (Trefil, J., & Hazen, R. 2010). The atom is the fundamental structure of chemistry; atoms are comprised of the three essential elements, protons, neutrons, and electrons (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Protons transmit a positive charge and neutrons do not transmit any charge, while electrons transmit a negative charge (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011).
An atom with an equal number of protons and electrons will hold neutral. An ion has positive or negative charge, either through a lack of electrons or an electron excess. The number of protons determines the formation of chemical elements, while as the number of neutrons determines the element's isotope. Most of the atom's mass has a concentration compacted within its nucleus; however, protons and neutrons hold about the same mass. Electrons bound to atoms hold a percentage of stable energy levels, otherwise known as orbitals, which undergo transitory processes through absorbing or omitting photons with equal energy levels.
Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. You can not pin point were the electrons are but the area that it can be in is called a shell.
Therefore the outer electron of the sodium switches orbits to the chlorine. This creates a Na+ ion and a Cl- ion. Because opposites attract, it means that the two substances create an ionic bond and form sodium chloride! Group one metals are the most reactive as they only have one, easily removed, electron. However if you view the periodic table:
The chemical properties of ordinary matter are determined by the electron cloud. The electron obeys the Fermi-Dirac statistics, and for this reason is often called a fermion. One of the primary attributes of matter, impenetrability, results from the fact that the elec tron, being a fermion, obeys the Pauli exclusion principle. The electron is the lightest of a family of elementary particles, the leptons. The other known charged leptons are the muon and the tau.
Protons, neutrons and electrons have a mass and a charge and this can be seen in a table 1 below. /C Charge of the proton /Kg /Mass of proton Proton +1.60x10-19 1 1.67x10-27 1 Electron -1.60x10-19 -1 9.11x10-31 0.0005 Neutron 0 0 1.67x10-27 1 Table 1 It is possible to simplify information within table 1 by looking at certain patterns in the numbers. The first pattern which can be seen is that proton and electrons have opposite and equal charges. A charge known as the elementary char... ... middle of paper ... ... the gamma radiation. 5cm of lead needs to be used to stop the penetration of gamma rays.
As for the valence electrons, they are simply electrons that are shared when atoms bond together. Moreover, you can find the number of valence electrons an element has just by looking at the periodic tables. The number of valence electrons is the same as the atom's group number which can be found by looking at its column. For example, carbon is in group 4; therefore, it has 4 valence electrons. The elements of the periodic table can be divided into three categories; metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.