Your search returned over 400 essays for "Biology"
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What is Addiction, and What Causes it?

- What is Addiction, and What Causes it. When a mother brings her young son along with her to a methadone clinic for her daily dose, each nurse and staff members looks upon the little boy with worry. Is this child in risk of falling into the same patterns simply because his mother will find it difficult to teach him differently. Or, is he predisposed to drug dependence due to his own DNA. While drug dependency has not yet been reduced to a few "undesirable" genes in the human genome, most, if not all, scientists will agree that the risk of drug dependence is largely heritable....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Effects of Medicinal Versus Recreational Marijuana Use

- Effects of Medicinal Versus Recreational Marijuana Use Is there a difference in the psychological/healing effects between the use of "recreational" marijuana and medicinal marijuana. Before researching this question, I could not understand what difference medicinal marijuana would have on cancer patients that was not already known through previous studies on the drug. I thought I fully understood marijuana's effects on the brain until the issues of medicinal marijuana arose. Prior to the research on the subject, I assumed that much of what is known now about the drug is due to the extensive research on its affects on Cancer and AIDS patients....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Artisitc License: Color Vision and Color Theory

- Artisitc License: Color Vision and Color Theory Imagine yourself in an art museum. You wander slowly from cold room to cold room, analyzing colored canvases on stark white walls. When you reach a particular work, do you prefer to stand back and take everything in at once. Or do you move so close to the painting that the individual brushstrokes become apparent. Several different sensory processes occur in your brain during this trip to the art museum; the majority of them involve visual inputs....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Importance Of The Human Genome Project

- The Importance Of The Human Genome Project This is the outstanding achievement not only of our lifetime, but of human history. I say this, because the Human Genome Project has the potential to impact the life of every person on this planet. It is a giant resource that will change mankind, much like the printing press did. The famous words of Dr. James Watson resonated as a victory bell, signaling the successful completion of what many deemed the boldest undertaking in the history of biology: The Human Genome Project (2003)....   [tags: Science Genetics Biology Papers]

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Phantom Limbs: A Neurobiological Explanation

- Phantom Limbs: A Neurobiological Explanation Severely injuring a digit or limb can result in unrepentant damage and amputation. However, the painful sensations experienced in regard to that limb do not necessarily cease after amputation. The concept of feeling sensations in a limb that is no longer attached to the body is referred to as feeling a "phantom limb." This phenomenon is experienced by approximately 80%-100% of all patients who have lost a limb (1), and has therefore sparked wide interest in scientific community....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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A Biological Look at Suicide

- Efficiency Above All: A Biological Look at Suicide "And let me ask you this; the dead, where aren't they?" – Franz Wright, New Yorker Magazine, Oct. 6, 2003 "Dear Mom and Dad," the letter begins benignly, "Thank you for all of your commitment. But I am not a suitable daughter, and you will all be better off without me. Please realize I have done this for your own good." Nothing more. And beside it, Mr. and Mrs. A find their daughter, dead by her own hand. So begin the episodes of anguished soul-searching, of horrific "if-onlys" experienced by the family members of countless suicides....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Science Today and Human Cloning

- Science Today and Human Cloning Nowadays, we are being constantly fed with the prophecy that molecular biology is the next revolutionary "wave" replacing information technology which has changed the way we live in the past 50 years. The past decade has seen scientists making significant breakthroughs in this field to start the current biotechnology hype. One defining achievement was the cloning of a sheep named Dolly by Dr. Ian Wilmut of Roslin Institute in 1996. This historic success debunked previous biology myth that adult cells have lost their totipotent abilities exhibited during early-stage embryonic stage....   [tags: Biology Research Essays]

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Memory, Learning and Our Virtual Brains

- Clearly, education has an immediate and definite purpose in my own life. As a student, I have been exposed to events that have had a profound impact on the development of my interests, talents, values, or what some may call intelligence. My own approach to problem solving has inspired me to frame the question of the interplay of intelligence, human behavior, learning, and experience in the language of neuroscience. Neuroscience is appealing to me because it offers an explanation for the micro and macro-level processes that operate to create my complex and unique approach to problem solving and response to the world....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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How Flexible is the Brain's Circuitry?

- How Flexible is the Brain's Circuitry. The brain is a complicated organ, containing an estimated 100 billion neurons and around 1,000 to 10,000 synapses for each of those neurons (1). This organ has the great responsibility of not only controlling and regulating the functions of the body but also sensing and perceiving the world around it. In humans, it is what we believe makes us the highly adaptive and intelligent organisms that we are, as well as give us our individuality. But with so many parts and connections to it, what happens when the brain's delicate circuitry is disrupted....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Nature and Function of Dreams

- The Nature and Function of Dreams There is a state of consciousness in which one could be or experience anything imaginable. This state encompasses the ability to dream (1). The dream state is quite remarkable and incorporates infinite possibilities for the dreamer within each of us. Nietzsche (1844-1900), a German philosopher, points out that dreams were a puzzle since “the ages of rude beginning of culture” when “man believed that he was discovering a second real world in a dream... (2).” The question that human beings were wrestling with since then is: why do we have dreams and what, if anything, do they mean....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Yawning: It Isn't About Oxygen Anymore

- Yawning: It Isn't About Oxygen Anymore Have you ever wondered why yawns are contagious; have you ever been in class and seen someone across the room yawn and found yourself following along. Have you ever been reading a book and, upon coming across a yawning character, been moved to stretch out your own face muscles. Most likely these things have happened to almost everyone more times than they can remember. I cannot tell you how many times I have yawned in the process of researching and writing this paper....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Xenotransplantation, Transgenics, and the Animal-human Boundary

- Xenotransplantation, Transgenics, and the Animal-human Boundary The progression of modern science and technology has often challenged old, time-worn notions. Nowhere does this seem truer than in biology and medicine, as these fields have changed drastically in recent decades and also relate so closely to the actual substance of how people live. One such development is what is called xenotrans-plantation or the transplantation of organs or cells across species—particularly notable when from a non-human species into a human....   [tags: Biology Biological Essays]

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Xenotransplantation and Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation

- Xenotransplantation and Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation ABSTRACT: The ecofeminist critique of dualism is applied to a consideration of two alternative paths that we might take in transplantation medicine: the utilization of organs and tissues taken from nonhuman animals, and/or further development of techniques for employing human organs and tissues, including human fetal tissue. It is concluded that from an evolutionary perspective, the assumption of a vast value disparity between human and nonhuman life is untenable, and from a moral point of view the establishment of yet another institution based on a dualistic opposition between human life, postulated to be of ultimate value, versus...   [tags: Biology Biological Science Essays]

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There’s A Hair In My Dirt

- Man Like Harriet in There’s A Hair In My Dirt, Larson depicts man in his egotistical essence as he struts through nature thinking he knows it all. When in actuality we have just begun. As a “higher” species, in the sense that we are capable able of verbal communication and intellectual thought, we dominate those species that cannot: the entire diverse world. Striving for this perfection, we have affected the environment and its organisms in many ways, whether beneficial or harmful. Considering ourselves as “higher” beings we tend to ignore the vastness of the world around us; We are blind to the biodiversity of all life and how very small and insignificant we truly are....   [tags: Biology Biodiversity Essays]

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Biotechnology in the Rio Grande Valley

- Biotechnology in the Rio Grande Valley When you get right down to it, the Rio Grande Valley is a lot like a cell. Everyone in the valley contributes to its existence, working day and night, keeping everything working. Our unique cultural blending serves as the DNA, and tacos seem to serve as our primary food source. Oh, and not to mention that the vast openness of the King Ranch serves as our cell membrane. The Valley, even though our quiet and simple life may not speak it, is well aware of the science taking place in the world around us, as well as in our own backyard....   [tags: Genetics Biology Essays Papers]

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History And Procedures of Gene Therapy

- The History And Procedures of Gene Therapy Abstract: Over the course of history there has been the idea of gene therapy has inspired many great scientists. The history of eugenics is important to the history of gene therapy because it is how gene therapy originated. Eugenics has driven many people to take extreme measures to try and make a “better human race”, this includes the Nazi party and the movement in the 1930’s inspired by Francis Galton. After that, research in eugenics continued and the human genome project sprung from the minds of scientists....   [tags: Biology Medical Biomedical Genetics]

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Are Genetics Responsible for Allergies?

- Are Genetics Responsible for Allergies. A Study In Identical Twins Everyone has either suffered from some kind of allergy, or knows somebody who has suffered from allergies. Allergies are the source of irritating symptoms, ranging from a painless skin rash to life-threatening breathing problems. For years, researchers have been trying to find out the source of these allergies. Some have suggested that environmental factors or early exposure to certain foods can cause allergies later in life, while others say that allergies are caused by genetics....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Issue of Non-Human Intelligence

- The Question of Non-Human Intelligence Human beings have long assumed that they were at the pinnacle of the evolutionary pyramid thanks mainly to their more complex brain. They believe that this advanced brain makes them not just more intelligent but categorically different from all other organisms. Recent advances in the fields of neurobiology and anatomy have begun to chisel away at this most scared of human assumptions and demonstrate that human brains, and the intelligence associated with them, are not categorically different than other animals....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Chemicals That Fix the Brain

- Chemicals That Fix the Brain The discovery of how the brain heals itself began, as discoveries often do, with a question: Why do children who suffer brain damage often recover fully, while adults with the same kind of damage are permanently incapacitated. University of Wisconsin neurobiologist Ronald Kalil was among those who pursued the question (15). His studies in young cats showed that entire networks of brain cells could be routed around damaged areas. Young animals whose primary vision centers were destroyed could still learn to see normally, he found, because cells in another part of their brains took up the job of processing vision....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Causes of Psychogenic Dwarfism

- I Won't Grow Up: The Causes of Psychogenic Dwarfism "All children, except one, grow up. They soon know that they will grow up, and the way Wendy knew was this. One day when she was two years old she was playing in a garden, and she plucked another flower and ran with it to her mother. I suppose she must have looked rather delightful, for Mrs. Darling put her hand to her heart and cried, "Oh, why can't you remain like this for ever!" This was all that passed between them on the subject, but henceforth Wendy knew that she must grow up....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Sexual Selection: Fact or Fiction

- Sexual Selection: Fact or Fiction Darwin's theory of sexual selection is an intriguing one because it offers an explanation of human striving and cultural value systems. The theory is that humans who are more sexually desirable will have more offspring and thus their traits will be passed on to future generations to a greater extent than those of less sexually desirable humans. As opposed to Darwin's other theory, natural selection, those who are the best adapted to their environment will be more likely to pass on their genes, or, "survival of the fittest", you might call sexual selection "survival of the sexiest." The theory is intended to in part explain why, when humans diverged from ot...   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Hysteria Over Conversion Disorder

- The Hysteria Over Conversion Disorder Scientists in fields connected to neurobiology and psychiatry remain mystified about the cause of Conversion Disorder. The disorder is characterized by physical symptoms of a neurological disorder, yet no direct problem can be found in the nervous system or other related systems of the body. This fact alone is not unusual; many diseases and symptoms have unknown origins. Conversion Disorder, however, seems to stem from "trivial" to traumatic psychological events and emotions rather than biological events....   [tags: Health Medicine Biology]

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Interspecific Fungal Horizontal Gene Transfer

- Abstract Abstract: Strong evidence was found that horizontal gene transfer occured between two fungal species. Genetic sequencing and compartive genomics, with specific attention to a loci containing the ToxA gene, showed that the two loci on Stagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophera tritici-repentis species are nearly identical and could not be derived from inheritance from a common ancestor. This gene transfer resulted in increased virulence of the P. tritici-repentis wheat pathogen sometime in the 1940's....   [tags: Biology Fungi Genetics Genomics]

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Utilization of 14c Phenylalanine Derived from Arylphorin or Free Amino Acid in Manduca Sexta Pharate Adults

- UTILIZATION OF {14C} PHENYLALANINE DERIVED FROM ARYLPHORIN OR FREE AMINO ACID IN MANDUCA SEXTA PHARATE ADULTS GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PAPER How did someone figure out that carbon dioxide in the bloodstream is exchanged for oxygen in the lungs of mammals. And how do we know that hormones are produced by, for example, the pituitary gland and, moreover, that these hormones signal the body to grow. These and many other questions have been answered by means of the scientific method. Scientists form hypotheses, experiment, collect data, and draw conclusions from this data that is then applied to answering questions about that certain topic....   [tags: Biology]

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A Human Transporter Protein that Mediates the Final Excretion Step for Toxic Organic Cations

- Introduction The kidney is an excretory organ that filters wastes from blood and excretes them as urine. Blood plasma filtration occurs at the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries. Transporters are specialized proteins located in the membranes of the nephron. There are different concentrations of transporters located at various regions of the nephron. For instance, the proximal tubule retains most of the sodium transporters. Some transporters require adenosine triphosphate while others perform passive transport....   [tags: Biology]

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Atmospheric Oxygen, Giant Paleozoic Insects and the Evolution of Aerial Locomotor Performance

- Animal gigantism was prevalent during the Carboniferous period of the Paleozoic era. Gigantism in flying insects occurred in abundance; however, arthropods, such as arthropleurids, also experienced gigantism. Arthropleurids existed during the Paleozoic era and were the largest land dwelling arthropods in the history of the Earth. 1m long millipedes are classified as arthropleurids. Amphibians such as the terrestrial labyrinthodont amphibians also became gigantic during the Carboniferous period. Large amphibians reached body lengths of up to 2m....   [tags: Biology]

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Analysis of the Enzyme Sucrase for Optimum Temperature, pH, and Concentration

- Analysis of the Enzyme Sucrase for Optimum Temperature, pH, and Concentration ABSTRACT Enzymes react differently under different conditions and concentrations, being the most productive at the enzymes specific optimum condition and concentration. The enzyme sucrase, extracted from yeast, breaks down the complex sugar sucrose into the simple sugar glucose. Testing for sucrase’s optimum environment, multiple reactions were ran using varying amounts and concentrations of sucrose and sucrase at different pHs and temperatures....   [tags: Biology]

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Investigating the Effect ofTeeth Cleaning Agents on the Growth of Bacteria

- Investigating the Effect of Different Teeth Cleaning Agents on the Growth of Bacteria On account of the price and variety of tooth cleaning agents available on the market, an investigation was conducted into the effect of different tooth cleaning agents containing different ingredients on the growth of teeth bacteria. The tooth cleaning agents tested were Colgate total antibacterial toothpaste with Triclosan (3 pence/ml), Boots non fluoride toothpaste (less than a penny/ml), Dental care baking soda toothpaste (2 pence/ml) and a twig from a natural toothbrush tree Salvadora persica commonly known as ‘Muswak’ (30 pence for two weeks supply, toothbrush not required as twig carries out the fun...   [tags: Biology]

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Cloned stem cells may give you a new lease of life

- Cloned stem cells may give you a new lease of life (A new lease of life means “an opportunity to improve someone’s future”) Summery Paragraph The name of my article is “Cloned stem cells may give a new lease of life” I found this article in the “New Scientist” magazine. It was published on November 8, 2002. The article is telling us about how to use therapeutic (treatment) cloning to take adult cells from a human body, create cloned embryos (animal or plant in the early period of its development before it is born or grown) and remove stem cells that can turn into a wide range of tissues (a bunch of cells forming an animal or plant....   [tags: Biology]

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Comparison of Science Based and Spiritual Based Reasons for Saving Environment

- Although both authors fixate on the environment, Raven's focus is on society's aggregate affect on the terrestrial environment, whereas Kimball concentrates on the isolated individual and spirituality as well as the terrestrial environment. The parallels and contradictions between these two authors has changed my thinking through making it undeniable to me that I am a part of the intrinsic dilemma of furthering ecological sustainability, and helping all of God's children along the path. Kimball's focus is on the eternal perspective of things, and has somewhat of a higher understanding of what is eternally important than Raven does....   [tags: Biology]

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The Effect of Temperature and Germination or Nongermination on Cellular Respiration

- Cellular respiration is the oxygen-requiring reactions, occurring in the mitochondrion, that breaks down the end products of glycolysis into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), while capturing large amounts of energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Most cells can metabolize a variety of organic molecules to produce ATP. Virtually, all cells metabolize glucose for energy, at least part of the time. Secondly, glucose metabolism is less complex than the metabolism of most other organic molecules....   [tags: Biology]

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Relationship between brain Expansion and the Appearance of Tool-Making in Hominids

- Introduction<P> Every organism on earth today, over millions of years has evolved from its predecessor. We humans, homo sapien sapiens, have also evolved from our predecessors, the Hominids. Experts like Archaeologists, Anthropologists and Palaeontologists are finding Hominid fossils every year and studying them to produce new or update theories on our past ancestors. If we go back in time up to 10 million years to when our ancestors were part of a large group of apes, they were similar in their physical appearance and even their intellect was similar....   [tags: Biology]

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Investigating the Osmotic Values of Chinese Radish and Potato Cores

- Investigating the Osmotic Values of Chinese Radish and Potato Cores Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of high water potential (Ψ) to an area of low water potential through a selectively permeable membrane. The diagrams above shows that only the water molecules can move quickly through the pores in the selectively permeable membrane. The sugar molecules (glucose arde too big to move through the gaps withease. Since there is a higher water potential on the left-hand side more water molecules will move from right to left, than from left to right....   [tags: Biology]

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Does raising the light intensity increase the rate of photosynthesis?

- Does raising the light intensity increase the rate of photosynthesis. Aim: To see if raising the light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis. Prediction:I predict that raising the light intensity will increase the rate of photosynthesis. I think this because light is the most important thing needed for photosynthesis. I then think that the rate of photosynthesis will stay the same when it reaches a certain point. I think this because the plant may use up all of the carbon dioxide (Sodium hydro carbonate) and the plant can have as much light as it needs but if it does not have any carbon dioxide it will not be able to photosynthesise....   [tags: Biology]

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Physical Activity and Body Weight vs Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

- Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common and well known afflictions in modern society. It kills and hospitalizes many people every year. CVD is actually a rather broad category of affliction. It encompasses any disease or condition that affects the heart. These conditions have effects that range from mild to surgical repair and even to death in extreme cases. The causes of CVD are fairly well known. It is directly linked to both physical activity (and the obesity that it prevents) and body mass index (BMI) in the research that we have studied....   [tags: Biology]

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Public Policy Analysis: the Crime Rate Among Schizophrenic People

- Schizophrenia is one of the most severe, chronic and disabling brain diseases. The most common assumption about this disease is that those who suffer from it have a "split personality." In the United States and other countries around the world, approximately 1 - 2% of the population has schizophrenia. This works out to about 2 million people diagnosed each year in America. Though it affects men and women at the same frequency, it appears in men usually in the late teens to early twenties and for women in the early twenties to early thirties....   [tags: Biology]

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Analysis of Load Carriage and Incline on Human Walking

- Abstract: Past studies have showed mixed evidence regarding the effects of load carriage on stride length. Some studies have observed a decrease while others noticed no change in average stride length. Past studies have also been inconsistent with the usage of hip straps that are meant to transfer weight onto the larger muscles groups of the legs, which might lower metabolic cost. Our experiment considers both flat and inclined surfaces when determining whether backpack loads and the usage of hip and chest straps affect a walker's step length and post-exercise heartrate....   [tags: Biology]

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Possible Mechanisms for Trinucleotide Expansion in Fragile X Syndrome

- Fragile X syndrome, a dominant X-linked disease, affects approximately 1 in 2,500 individuals and is a prevalent cause of inherited neurological disorders causing mental retardation (Kaufmann and Reiss 1999). A single mutated gene has been identified, FMR1, and defined as the cause of Fragile X. The Fragile X site is highly polymorphic in the chromosomes of Fragile X individuals and contains long CGG repeats. This CGG polymorphism has been identified as the cause of DNA instability (Kremer et al....   [tags: Biology]

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Review of Research Paper on RNA in Mammalian Cells

- Review of Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses. The dsRNA can cause RNA interference when it is taken into the cell by a transgene or a virus....   [tags: Biology]

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The Accuracy of the Animated Film "Ice Age"

- A critique of "ICE AGE" In the 20th Century Fox production, ICE AGE, we are introduced to a variety of prehistoric animals trying to avoid the coming ice age by moving to warmer climates. This is a classic buddy story revolving around non-fiction animals of the ice age period. This rag tag group consists of a woolly mammoth, sabre tooth cat, a sloth and a sabre tooth squirrel. They join forces to reunite a human baby with his tribe. Of course, the sabre tooth squirrel isn't so much of the group as entertainment....   [tags: Biology]

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Survival of the Fittest: Defense Mechanisms in Nature

- The intricacy and detail, the structure of every living thing is astounding. Each new personal discovery produces a broader appreciation and respect for nature, such as learning the number of species equipped with specialized defense mechanisms. This innate ability develops over time through adaptation. Adaptations are changes in an organism's physiological structure, function, or habits that allow it to survive in new surroundings. Animals utilize numerous weapons to escape harm. These include camouflage, trickery in the form of mimicry, chemical combat, and appearing injured or playing dead....   [tags: Biology]

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Study of Human Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

- Everyone should be aware of the threat of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's). What everyone doesn't know is how common and dangerous these threats are. Currently, as many as twenty different types of STDs have been identified. Also, more than thirteen million men and women are affected by STDs each year (Men's Health, 2004). Each day this number grows. There is good news to consider about this topic. For one, even though many of these diseases don't have a cure, some of them do. Much more research is being conducted to produce even more cures and vaccines....   [tags: Biology]

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Differing Rates of Evolutionary Change and Common Misconceptions

- Evolutionary Time Scales EVOLUTIONARY time scales are difficult to comprehend from a human perspective; resultantly, anthropocentric conceptions of time have perverted evolutionary theory. Evolution is seen by laymen as a generational process - a process pondering the question: if the offspring of sexual organisms are always different from their parents, why does speciation only take place over many thousands of generations. Speciation - even adaptation for that matter - cannot be viewed in this microcosmic scope....   [tags: Biology]

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Interpretation on Scientific Article about Sense of Smell

- Introduction The sense of smell is what informs an organism of the chemical composition of their surrounding environment. The sense of smell is called olfaction and in humans, it is less developed than in most other mammals. The olfactory system contains epithelial cells that are unique because they are capable of regeneration, unlike most other neurons. The receptors for both taste and smell are called chemoreceptors. They are termed chemoreceptors because they respond to chemicals that are in aqueous solution....   [tags: Biology]

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Fabrication of an Endothelialized Tube in Collagen Gel

- Why should you be interested in the fabrication of an endothelialized tube in collagen gel. If an endothelialized tube can be created in collagen gel this could lead to the creation of a self-developing capillary-like network. This could be very useful because it could make it possible to grow organs in vitro. As of right now three-dimensional organs cannont be grown in vitro because there has been no way create a capillary-like network that will bring oxygen and all the other nutrients to the enitre organ....   [tags: Biology]

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The Eye is The Most Complicated Sense Organ

- The eye; the most complicated sense organ General – Introduction to the subject A. Adaptation of sense organs to our biological evolution Sense organs, as the other organs, are the result of our continuous biological evolution and are built is such way so they can meet our needs. B. The electromagnetic spectrum and what we are able to see The electromagnetic spectrum contains a large width of energy areas but we are able to see only a small part of this spectrum, the visible light spectrum. Figure 1 As you can see the visible area is between the Ultra-violet and Infra-red areas....   [tags: Biology]

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Survival of Warm-Blooded Aminals in Arctic Conditions

- Aim: To find out how warm-blooded animals survive in the Arctic conditions. Background information: The Arctic conditions are extreme; they consist of sub-zero temperatures, heavy snow, strong winds and ice. To survive these conditions animals must keep a constant body temperature to maintain the optimum temperature for essential chemical reactions to take place. If a living cell cools to a temperature below 0°C then ice crystals can form which will puncture the cell membrane causing the cell to burst....   [tags: Biology]

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What Is the Role of a Macromolecule?

- What is the role of Macromolecules. Macromolecules have a major role in everyday life, we might not notice this because we don't exactly know what we use them for and why they are so important to us, mainly because we can see them therefore we are not aware that they exist. The term macromolecules is sometimes used to refer to aggregates of two or more macromolecules held together by intermolecular forces rather then by chemical bonds. Another common macromolecule property that does not characterize smaller molecules is the need for assistance in dissolving into solution....   [tags: Biology]

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Orangutans and the Meat for Sex Hypothesis

- Abstract: The chosen study is a 1998-1999 survey of approximately 25 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Meratus forest in Borneo. The Meratus forest has had no naturally occurring orangutan population since 1997, and it is a popular location to "reintroduce rehabilitant orangutans and translocate wild individuals (Grundmann, 300)." The initial goal of the project was to investigate newly reintroduced orangutans to determine what skills became underdeveloped due to the animals not needing to use them in captivity....   [tags: Biology]

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Function and Structure of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

- Myoglobin consist of single polypeptide chain that made up of 153 amino acid and ahs a size of 18 kDa. Its three-dimensional structure was first determined by X-ray crystallography by John Kendrew in 1957. Myoglobin is a typical globular protein in that it is a highly folded compact structure with most of the hydrophobic amino acid residues buried in the interior and many of the polar residues on the surface. X-ray crystallography revealed that the single polypeptide chain of myoglobin consist of entirely of eight (labelled A-H) alpha-helical....   [tags: Biology]

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Male and Female Roles in Sexual Selection

- Missing results graphs Why It Matters Sexual selection occurs across all species and is a key part of evolution. It allows animals to increase their fitness. Here are several interesting examples of cryptic female choice and male competition: 1) Males may perform courtship dances to show off their good genes. One species in which courtship dances can be observed are jumping spiders. Male spiders of this species wave their legs and arms to show females their abilities. Females choose a mate after seeing the dances....   [tags: Biology]

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Advances in Neuronal Control of Prosthetic Devices

- Introduction Every year, thousands of Americans are paralyzed in accidents. As a result researchers are currently looking into ways to help paralyzed patients carry out their daily duties and bring control to their lives. Bringing movement to those who are currently incapable of doing so could be accomplished through several methods. Recently, a robotic arm was made by the Chicago Rehabilitation Institute which was placed on an amputee’s shoulder, and functioned by monitoring nerve impulses from the subject....   [tags: Biology]

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Computers Predicting the outcomes of cutting DNA

- The focus of this study is the interaction between DNA and I-Msol, an endonuclease. An endonuclease is a protein that cuts DNA at a certain sequence with a certain length; I-Msol cuts DNA at approximately 20-24 base pairs and is highly specific in what sequence it is designed to cut. The interaction between DNA and an endonuclease like I-Msol is difficult to determine just by looking at the amino acid sequence of the protein. The difficulty arises because of the many molecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are affected by how the protein specifically interacts with the DNA, 3-dimensionally....   [tags: Biology]

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Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria

- Isolation of a Urea Degrading Bacteria Introduction Urea was the first organic chemical to be synthetically produced1, previously it was thought that only living creatures could produce organic compounds Urea is naturally produced by the kidneys as waste from the degradation of amino acids. It is because of this that urea is commonly found in soils and is a useful nutrient source for bacteria that are able to utilise it, such as, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumonia, all species of Proteus and Micrococcus luteus....   [tags: Biology]

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Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis

- Compare and Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis and mitosis describes the process by which cells divide, either by asexual or sexual reproduction to produce a new organism. Meiosis is a form of cell division that produces gametes in humans these are egg cells and sperms, each with reduced or halved number of chromosomes. The number of chromosomes is restored when two gametes fuse together to form a zygote. A cell with two copies of each chromosome is called diploid cell and a cell with one copy of each chromosome is called a haploid cell....   [tags: Biology]

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The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis

- The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis Genetic code is the sequence of organic bases on the double strands of DNA. These bases line up in a particular order to code for things like eye colour, hair colour and height. Every person has an individual genetic code and no two persons are exactly the same. DNA replicates in a semi-conservative manner. The two strands are separated by an enzyme called Helicase and both become templates for new DNA. Each strand then attracts new organic bases to the ones already present e.g....   [tags: Biology]

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Response to Article about Cystic Fibrosis

- Cystic Fibrosis - Summary of Article It has been known for quite some time that CFTR is a cAMP regulated chloride ion channel whose mutation is intimately linked to cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the abnormality in the chloride ion channels is not the only biochemical peculiarity associated with the disease. Of particular interest to researchers is the finding that sodium ion (Na+) absorption in the cells of CF patients is both elevated and positively related to the cAMP concentration, whereas, in normal cells, cAMP concentration is inversely related to the rate of Na+ absorption....   [tags: Biology]

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Benefits of Cholesterol to Brain Development

- What do you think of when you hear the word cholesterol. It's pretty common to think that it makes you gain weight, it is bad in large quantities, and it is generally unhealthy. But a recent experiment has shown that although it can be bad in some ways, it is good for you in other ways. One of the most important parts of your body is your central nervous system (CNS). It includes your spinal cord and your brain, and it is run by cells called neurons. These neurons, with the help of synapses, send electrical signals throughout the body....   [tags: Biology]

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Parasitic Malaria Prorogation Through Mosquito Host

- Introduction Malaria is transmitted through a plasma-based gamete that first infects the vector through which the disease is passed, in this case the Anopheles mosquito. The gametes begin as gametocytes that are rapidly fertilized and soon transformed into zygotes, then to ookinetes (mobile forms of the zygotes) that cross the mosquito’s midgut wall as soon as nineteen and up to thirty-six hours after ingestion. These ookinetes soon convert themselves into oocysts, which are thick-walled structures that make the transfer of the zygotes to new hosts easier, and then settle in the outer lining of the midgut....   [tags: Biology]

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Declining Population of Loggerhead Sea Turtle

- Declining Population of Loggerhead Sea Turtle The title of this paper is pretty self explanatory and the facts are simple. The solution is feasible but yet, not enough action is being taken to make a difference. You would think that we as humans being the dominate creatures of the earth, would be able to understand the simplicity of knowing the negative effects of our carelessness and the impact it has on the creatures around us…Creatures that are close to defenseless when put in comparison with mankind....   [tags: Biology]

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Testing the Strength of Plant Fibers

- Title: Testing the strength of plant fibers Objectives: To develop knowledge and understanding of the strength of plant fiber in a plant stem. To develop problem solving and experimental skills, for example, information is accurately processed, using calculations where appropriate, experimental procedures are planned, designed and evaluated properly, the use of microscopes, producing valid results and recording results. To develop techniques of measuring the size of plant fibers under microscope using stage micrometer and eyepiece graticule....   [tags: Biology]

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Perceptions of Mental Illness

- Perceptions of Mental Illness Throughout this course, much of what we have discussed has depended strongly on an interpretation of scientific information. We have questioned, criticized, accepted, rejected, and formed our own ideas about topics in neural and behavioral science. A book which I have read recently seems to fit in with this type of discussion. Blaming the Brain, by Eliot Valenstein, describes the major biological theories of mental illness and the lack of evidence we have to fully support them....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Synthetic Model of Bioethical Inquiry

- Bioethics and the Synthetic Model of Bioethical Inquiry ABSTRACT: Bioethics, viewed as both a form of reflective practice and a developing discipline, is concerned with the moral aspects of health care practice and research. With its steady maturation in the domain of moral discourse, bioethics has presided over a number of questions about the nature of human illness and how problems imposed by illness can be understood in an age marked not only by progress, but also by the concomitant fear that such progress will outstrip our humanity and our dignity as persons....   [tags: Biology]

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White Rat Dissection Lab Report

- White Rat Dissection Lab Report GOALS: Learn about the anatomy of the White Rat. Gain dexterity with instruments used in the dissection procedure. Compare and /or contrast the anatomy of the White Rat with that one of the Human body. MATERIALS AND INSTRUMENTS: Cadaver of a White rat, preserved in chloroform. A dissection pan, Butcher’s twine, Bounty paper towels, latex gloves. 3. Instruments used in the dissection kit: Scissors; Forceps; Scalpel; and the Probe PROCEDURE: The first step was to obtain the White Rat and to tie it in the supine position, anterior surface facing up in side the dissection pan....   [tags: Biology]

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Exchange and Transport in Protozoa

- Exchange and Transport in Protozoa The exchange of gases between the environment and cells occurs via the process of diffusion. Diffusion depends on: · The amount of surface area available for diffusion. The larger the surface area the greater the rate of diffusion. · The concentration gradient. An organism which respires very quickly will have a much lower concentration of oxygen in the cells and a higher than normal concentration of Carbon Dioxide. So the greater the concentration gradient across the respiratory surface the quicker the rate of diffusion....   [tags: Biology]

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Tissue in the Human Body

- Connective Tissue Connective tissues are found all over our bodies. Generally, they are located in blood, fat, and between muscles and bones. The matrix is the substance that surrounds the cell. Matrices can be fluid or solid, depending on where they are found. They also are found to have varying degrees of vascularity. For example, a bone would be very vascular while cartilage is avascular. Two good property the cells of connective tissue have is that they can divide and repair themselves. The functions of these tissues are: to bind structures, support, protect, serve as framework, store fat, produce blood cells and repair damage....   [tags: Biology]

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Coming of Age in Mississippi

- During Essie Mae's childhood, many conditions made her young life very difficult. Even though she was a little girl, she had experienced how hard life was for most African American people during those years of segregation. I believe that Essie Mae did not have a positive childhood because she did not have people who influenced her life in a good and positive way. First, the fact that her father left the house, I think, can be one of the hardest experiences in her childhood. In some cases for a child that can turn into a trauma which can affect his or her future life in a negative way....   [tags: Biology]

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The Importance of Geographic Isolation

- Although Darwin and Mayr both contributed enormously to the topic of speciation, they had two totally different views on the main mechanism driving it. Darwin noticed geographic isolation but discounted any importance in it believing natural selection to be the driving force, while Mayr believed that geographic isolation was the driving force of speciation and founded the theory of allopatric speciation. For decades Mayr's idea has been the traditional method thought to result in the highest amount of speciation, but recent support has shifted from allopatry and Darwins gradualism to rapid and sporadic periods of speciation with periods of relative equilibrium regardless of geographic barri...   [tags: Biology]

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On the Brink of Extinction

- Introduction Biodiversity is the grand diversity of all life on Earth and the interconnections that support these forms of life. This astonishing diversity supports the human existence by providing numerous priceless resources such as food, fuel, and medicine. Many of these resources can not be duplicated by the human race. For these reasons it is obvious that the environment and the biodiversity that it supports are detrimental to human survival. There is one major problem that is growing each day, and that is the amount of biodiversity, along with the services and benefits that is provides is diminishing....   [tags: Biology]

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GLUT 4 in Muscle Cells

- Hypothesis During muscle contractions cytosolic calcium and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels increase. Exercise also increases GLUT 4 production, which allows more glucose to be metabolized in the muscle cell. The purpose of this study was to determine whether calcium and AMPK cause the increases in GLUT 4 production in the cell. The hypothesis regarding GLUT 4 being tested in this research article stems from related research, which showed that GLUT 4 and mitochondria increase due to repeated bouts of muscle contraction....   [tags: Biology]

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Cell Matrix Adhesions and Fibroblast

- Missing results figures How are cell matrix contacts regulated. The two papers explained in this website: "Regulation of protrusive and contractile cell-matrix contacts" and "Dynamics and segregation of cell-matrix in cultured fibroblasts" explore both the types of cell matrix contacts and the interactions between these contacts in many different bodily cells. Cell matrix contacts are parts of the cell surface where specialized adhesion receptors in the membrane attach to the extracellular matrix (ECM), the matrix outside the cells....   [tags: Biology]

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Notch Proteins and Kaposi's Sarcoma

- The notch protein is part of the greater picture, the notch signaling pathway. The actual protein serves as a trigger straddling the inside and outside of the cell membrane. When certain proteins bind to the exterior of the notch, the interior releases other proteins which make their way to the cell nucleus to alter gene expression. Some responsibilities delegated to the notch include but are not limited to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Notch proteins are not an universal brand of amino acids, rather they are only found in Metazoans, or animals....   [tags: Biology]

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Using Computational Design in Proteins

- Introduction This experiment demonstrated that proteins can successfully be manipulated to perform specific functions. This accomplishment proves to be very important and groundbreaking - especially in the area of biotechnology. The experiment that was carried out was able to turn a previously inactive protein into one with catalytic activity through the manipulation of the amino acids of a binding site. This proves important because catalytic activity can be used to speed up reactions....   [tags: Biology]

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Evolutionary Physiology of Animal Flight

- "Peaking" Into the World of Flight Ever wondered about what initiated the ability of flight among insects and vertebrates. About how the creatures take off and venture into their flight. Well if “yes” was an answer to one of the questions (or even if it wasn’t), Flight is the place to find the answers. Oxygen, Forces & Flight Oxygen. Check. Forces. Check. Ready for flight. Check. "It's all About Oxygen" Oxygen has a role in flight. Of course. ... A motion and a changing ability, flight in insects and vertebrates have developed and evolved for years....   [tags: Biology]

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Obesity Alters Gut Microbial Ecology

- A common theme among the concerns of today’s American citizens is that of obesity. Obesity, identifiable by abnormal fat accumulation, can be defined in absolute terms by one who has a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 30. It is estimated that over 30 percent of American adults are clinically obese. This number has shown a dramatic increase from the 15 percent of American adults suffering from obesity in 1980. Globally, 400 million adults are obese, while predictions place this number at 700 million by 2015....   [tags: Biology]

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Violence and the Brain

- Violence and the Brain Is there a biological basis for violent behavior in the brain. Recent research links "neurological impairments and psychoses" to violent behavior (1). The "psychological effects" of brain damage and disease can cause the mind to lose touch with reality leading to criminal and violent behavior (1). As a result, free will may be deserted in an individual suffering from abnormalities and chemical imbalances in the brain (2). Consequently, legal issues arise because violent offenders with mental illnesses or brain injuries are not always to blame due to the biological nature of their diseases (2)....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Vygotsky And The We-Function

- Vygotsky And The We-Function The room is bare with the exception of the long, glass table, six wooden chairs, and a blackboard, but one hardly notices this fact. Instead, the first thing that outsiders notice is the energy in room created by the dynamic of the six women seated around the table. As they share ideas and frantically sketch diagrams on the board, the problem they are attacking is simplified again and again until it is solved. Amid pats on the back and "Good job!" comments, each woman thinks to herself how impossible the problem had seemed while she was alone, but now, in this group, the solution had come so quickly....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Biological Theories of Manic-Depression

- Biological Theories of Manic-Depression Like every mental illness, there is no definitive evidence concerning the etiology of manic-depression, also known as bipolar disorder. The disorder is characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania and occurs in 1% of the population. The depressive episodes can range in severity from dysthymia to major depressive episodes. The major depressive episodes are classified as periods of at least two weeks in length during which sadness, lethargy, insomnia or excessive sleep, increase or decrease in appetite, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are present....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Truth About SARS

- The Truth About SARS People in general are both fascinated and paranoid of the onset of new infectious diseases. While films such as "Outbreak" are smash hits at the box office, when an actual disease becomes apparent people often react with a kind of mass hysteria. Last year, a new illness reared its evil head. While the name "SARS" has become fairly well-known, the actual facts behind the illness are not as widely talked about. SARS is an acronym for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The illness usually first becomes evident with a temperature above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit, general malaise, and body aches....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Genetic Screening Debate

- The Genetic Screening Debate Within the past thirty years, researchers have found strong evidence linking genes and disease. The development of predictive genetic tests followed shortly after the isolation of certain candidate genes. Although predictive genetic screening is only available for a handful of diseases, its effects and ramifications have become hotly debated issues in a wide range of areas, from government to religion. The debate began in the 1993 when researchers isolated the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer....   [tags: Biology Biological Genes Papers]

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