The American Psychological Association defines prefrontal lobotomy as “an operation that severs
the nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain with the diencephalon, especially those
fibers of the thalamic and hypothalamic areas; best-known form of psychosurgery.”
The surgery sounds quite complex and foreign yet after World War II tens of thousands of mental patients were subjected to prefrontal lobotomy and other surgeries as sources of treatment (Valenstein 418). The process was developed by a man by the name of Egas Moniz, Professor of Neurology at the University of Lisbon, who was recognized for his accomplishments by receiving the Nobel Prize (418). As well as Walter Freeman, Professor of Neurology at George Washington University, who performed the first trans-orbital lobotomy in the United States; and by nineteen-fifty, forty-one percent of the nation’s inpatient mental hospitals had performed lobotomies (418). There was considerable evidence that Moniz’s procedure actually cured all of the mentally unstable patients, or so we thought.
... middle of paper ...
...oes this make him subject to a lobotomy?
1. For more information about ECT’s, see Weiten page 626.
American Psychological Association. “Glossary of Psychological Terms- Prefrontal Lobotomy.”
APA, N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Lambert, Kelly, and Craig H. Kinsley. "Epilogue." Clinical Neuroscience. New York: Worth Publishers,
2005. 526-528. Print.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder- United Kingdom. "Neurosurgery for Mental Disorder (NMD)."
OCD-UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Valenstein, Elliot S.. "The History of Lobotomy: A Cautionary Tale." Michigan Quarterly Review
(Volume XXVII, Issue: 3). Volume XXVII ed. Ann Arbor: Michigan Quarterly Review, 1988.
Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations. 6th ed. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.,
2004.(568 and 626) Print.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Imagine sitting at home all day, showing no emotion to the outside world. That is what happens to people who have lobotomies. Mental disorders are a major health concern all around the world. They can affect people starting at birth, or they can develop with age. Cures for these disorders were not very effective until the development of different types of drugs in the twentieth century. Before these drugs were invented, procedures like lobotomies were considered an acceptable treatment for certain types of mental disorders.... [tags: prefrontal lobotomy, cirgury, brain]
1245 words (3.6 pages)
- Neurosurgery used for the treatment of mental illnesses has a vast history with its origin tracing back to the beginning of time. However, psychosurgery, brain surgery in which attempts to correct a mental disorder, was not developed until the mid-20th century (Mashour). During this time, lobotomies, an alteration in nerve tracts of the frontal lobe of the brain, were performed on Americans who were considered mentally ill. Although many health care professionals at that time supported this practice, there were just as many who were concerned about using psychosurgery as a method of treatment to alter an individual’s brain.... [tags: Psychology]
1813 words (5.2 pages)
- According to Price, Rosenbloom, & Schmahmann (2012) “The importance of this cognitive process is evidenced by the fact that approximately 40% of deaths results from decision-making deficits at the most basic level of self-regulation” (p. 266). Through my chosen articles I found that the Prefrontal Cortex is the major portion of the brain that is responsible for decision-making. To understand the decision-making process better the prefrontal Cortex can be divided into three regions: the Orbitofrontal Cortex, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.... [tags: cognitive process, brain functioning]
1356 words (3.9 pages)
- Medial Prefrontal Cortex (MPFC) The medial prefrontal cortex which is commonly referred to as the anterior cingulate cortex and expresses high activity when a person is presented with a series of “people orientated” facts. In tests where subjects are read a description of a person or a story involving internal senses, the MPFC had a very high response versus the more thought provoking tests where little to no activity was recorded (Saxe et al., 2009). In 1995, the trust game had been developed by three researchers Berg, Dickhaut, and McCabe, a valued tool in activating the MPFC (Moss, 2011).... [tags: Brain, Cerebrum, Mind, Theory of mind]
1375 words (3.9 pages)
- Prefrontal Cortex Lesions from Neurosurgeon and Patient Perspective In this paper, I will discuss lesions of the prefrontal cortex from the perspective of the practice of neurosurgery (in particular, the sub-field of psychosurgery) and then I will consider some studies that look at the implications of lesions to the prefrontal cortex to the brain and behavior, from the perspective of the patient with the lesion. Initially, I will start with the history and explanation of psychosurgery.... [tags: Surgery Surgical Health Essays]
2784 words (8 pages)
- Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is involved in a wide variety of functions. It is known as the area of the brain which has “executive control”, taking input from other areas of the brain and combining and applying those functions (Kalat 2004). Lesions to the prefrontal area can greatly impair overt behavior of an inflicted individual. These deficits are dependent upon the severity of the lesion and the specific region of the prefrontal cortex in which the lesion resides (ventrolateral, dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, and anterior prefrontal)(Eslinger 2003).... [tags: Neurology Health Medical Essays]
1521 words (4.3 pages)
- Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the most anterior portion of the frontal lobe. It responds mostly to stimuli signaling the need for movement, however it is also responsible for many other specialized functions. It receives information from all sensory systems and can integrate a large amount of information (Kalat 2004). Studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex is responsible for working memory. Working memory is defined as "the information that is currently available in memory for working on a problem" (Anderson 2005).... [tags: Neurology Brain Medical Essays]
1160 words (3.3 pages)
- Physiological Deficits There is no one causal factor, or single identifying marker that determines violent behavior in individuals. While studies show characteristics associated with violent offenders, no single variable predetermines such offenses. It is instead a number of factors that come in to play, that have shown an association to such reactive aggressive behavior. Factors such as environmental demographic (Hughs, 2008) (Barnes, 2012), biological and genetic predispositions to mental illness (Miller & Barnes, 2013), prenatal brain development (Michalska & Kinzler, 2011), abuse, psychological factors, and many other variables that somehow coincide to create a recipe for such violent a... [tags: Physiological Defecits, Treatment]
1610 words (4.6 pages)
- Many people assume that the use of technology as a source of entertainment for toddlers can be damaging to their health by delaying brain development and leading to attention deficit/hyperactive disorder, and it can, if not used properly. The main issue with the use of tablets and smartphones are that they are not being used properly. It is true that if you sit your 2 year old in front of a T.V. for hours while you do work that your kid will have attention problems and will be hard to control, but this should not be the intended purpose or use of technology.... [tags: Brain, Psychology, Infant, Prefrontal cortex]
1012 words (2.9 pages)
- Prefrontal Cortex Another highly implicated area in psychopathy is the prefrontal cortex which helps monitor ongoing behavior, tie emotional learning to decision making, and making conjectures about consequences to actions (Anderson & Kiehl, 2012). Damage here can lead to impulsive behavior combined with poor judgment. Anderson & Kiehl (2012) also found not only through functioning imaging but in a prisoner’s dilemma task involving complicated decisions about working together socially that individuals with psychopathy showed lower Orbitofrontal cortex activity when deciding whether to obey and lower dorsolateral prefrontal activity when deciding to engage in anti-social behavior than normal... [tags: agression reaction, psychopaths, prefrontal cortex]
1773 words (5.1 pages)