Psychoactive Substance Use And Substance Abuse Essay

Psychoactive Substance Use And Substance Abuse Essay

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Throughout societies, individuals from time to time are constantly faced with inevitable life circumstances and crises in varying areas of their lives where they are forced to employ coping strategies as a way of dealing with their situations. Such skills can either be healthy or unhealthy where effectiveness varies and is based on subjective reports derived from individuals. Likewise, within the field of mental health, individuals encounter struggles in different areas including emotional, social, cognitive and psychological where their ability to engage in effective reasoning and problem solving becomes impaired thus allowing them to become incapable of making appropriate decisions. Conversely, many such individuals resort to inappropriate use of medicated drugs, excessive smoking and alcohol consumption. Consequently, this may lead such individuals to engage in substance abuse. Substance abuse in accordance with the World Health Organization is defined as “the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state” (Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://www.who.int/topics/substance_abuse/en/).
The DSM- 5 postulates the criteria of impaired control, social impairment, risky use and pharmacological as being indicative of substance use disorders...


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Criticisms of Motivational Interviewing
Despite being considered an effective technique in treating substance abuse, researchers have yet been able to develop reliable and practical instruments and methods that allow assessment of training and supervision outcomes, thus making it difficult to assess treatment fidelity and quality (Rubak, Sandbaek, Lauritzen & Christensen, 2005). Also, many research reports purporting effectiveness have either failed to give sufficient detail regarding critical principles and techniques to determine treatment fidelity and/or claim to use MI (Baer, Beadnell, Garrett, Hartzler, Wells & Peterson, 2008). Similarly, in embracing the spirit of Motivational interviewing, may not only result in clients learning new behaviors but may require existing behaviors to become suppressed (Arkowitz, Westra, Miller & Rollnick, 2010).

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