Prostate Adenocarcinoma and Its Effect on Families
Prostate cancer is a malignancy of the cells in the prostate gland, causing them to grow abnormally and form tumors. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland of the males’ reproductive system, lying just behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. Moreover, the prostate is comprised of several types of cells that can become cancerous, but nearly all prostate cancer develops within the glandular tissue that creates the fluid that is added to semen. This type of cancer is referred to as Adenocarcinoma. Additionally, the cancerous cells of the prostate are normally not fatal; however, these cells break off and spread to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer is one of the leading types of cancer in males, second only to skin cancer, affecting one in seven American men (Cherath, Johnson, & Frey, 2015).
Detection and Diagnosis
Furthermore, prostate cancer is generally asymptomatic in its early stages, frequently allowing the disease to go undetected until found during a routine physical examination. Detection is normally made through a combination of the following tests: digital rectal examination, blood tests, transrectal ultrasound, X-ray and imaging techniques, and prostate biopsy. The doctor performs a digital rectal examination by inserting a gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum of the patient to feel for lumps or abnormalities of the prostate. Blood tests are used to measure the level of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), circulating in the bloodstream. A small amount of PSA can normally be detected in the blood, but the cancerous cells often produce this protein and significantly raise the circulating levels. During a transrectal ultrasound...
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...normally detected initially through routine physical examinations, then later diagnoses through various tests. Once diagnosed, doctors assign a numerical grade based on the similarity or dissimilarity to normal prostate tissue and determine the stage of the cancer using clinical and histopathologic data. Once graded and the stage determined, doctors and the patient determine the treatment after considering the patient’s overall health, the stage of the tumor, and the risk and benefits of each treatment. There is no definite way to prevent prostate cancer, but research indicates a low-fat diet may slow its progression. From initial detection and throughout the treatment process, nursing care for patients with prostate cancer should focus on providing education and emotional support, as well as recognizing and helping manage treatment-related complications.
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