The end of the Pleistocene epoch which had blanketed the globe in its last Ice Age approximately 11,800 years ago – paved the way for the Holocene epoch and its interstadial environmental changes (World Almanac Education Group, Inc. 2014). The essential global warming of the Holocene gave rise to bodies of water due to melting glacial masses, and altered habitable landscapes replacing the barren tundra with a wide-variety of prominent forests and an abundance of vegetation (Mithen; Ed. Cunliffe 1994: 81-89).
Similarly, the evident changes in ecosystems marked the continuous redistribution of animal life. On land; the gradual extinction of species such as the woolly mammoth and rhinoceros (among others) with their sheer build designed to withstand the climactic dispersions of the tundra, led to the exchange for more suitable species such as bison, elk, and wild horses (Mithen; Ed. Cunliffe 1994: 86-89). The sea provided diversity in sharks, dolphins, and seasonal fresh water fish such as pike and trench (Mithen; Ed. Cunliffe 1994: 86) – whereby both earth and water produced increased specialized populations and diversity, matching the mosaic of the Holocene environments.
Corresponding with the transitional ecological changes of the Pleistocene epoch, notable for humanity’s gestation; the Holocene epoch propagated the “flowering of human civilization” (World Almanac Education Group, Inc. 2014: ) and the diverged-evolution of homo sapiens sapiens (h.s.s.) most akin to modern man. The Mesolithic and Neolithic transitory-eras, characteristic of these epochs, introduced h.s.s.’: adaptations, subsistence, and essential survival in coping with the actively dynamical environment. O...
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... all, and attached to modern man is the necessary definition of civilization understood as “the stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced” (Oxford University Press 2016: Civilization). Subsequently, its nature highlights the processes of achievement, cultural ways of life, along with attached comforts and conveniences (Oxford University Press 2016: Civilization). En masse, the stage for the Mesolithic European societies and beginnings of civilization is set.
The Mesolithic: Society and Culture
Again, prompted by the ecological diversity ensuing from Holocene’s global warming – the Mesolithic era, also known as the Middle Stone Age, with its beginnings approximately 10,000 years ago ( Mithen; Ed. Cunliffe 1994: 79) yielded changes to early human societies as they became better adapted to their environmental circumstances.
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