Participation Within Mainstream Education Within The Uk And Scotland Essay example

Participation Within Mainstream Education Within The Uk And Scotland Essay example

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It is not clear when the term inclusion began being used when discussing participation within mainstream education. When the Salamanca Statement was published by UNESCO in 1994 it helped to shape the way that educational policy within the UK and Scotland was formed. The statement reached out to the global community in order to improve inclusion within schools by carrying out practical and strategic changes (CSIE, 2015). The statement was a crucial push towards increasing inclusive practice within Scottish schools. As the statement was published by UNESCO it received backing from the United Nations, which helped to identify inclusion as a human rights issue (Ellis and Tod, 2008).
Before the term inclusion was adopted, the issue was referred to as integration. When the term integration was still being used another significant report was published, the Warnock Report in 1978. The purpose of the Warnock Report was to review what provisions were being made for young people with special education needs including physical and mental handicaps within the UK in order to make recommendations to the government. The government could then begin to make arrangements and in order to ensure that young people with special education needs were fully included in British schools and had any additional resources they may require during their time in education.
The Warnock Report describes three different levels of integration which could be possible within schools. The first was locational integration which involved having pupils with special education needs within the same site as a mainstream school. While this is the most removed form of integration it still has benefits as siblings can attend the same school and it allows pupils with special educ...

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...dren begin schooling. A conservative position may believe that the reason pupils from lower education households do not do well once they leave school is because they did not work hard whilst in education and did not take full advantage of the opportunities that were on offer. A moderate view on the attainment gap assumes that the reason pupils from lower income families do not succeed at school is because the school has provided them with a substandard education which they were unable to take full advantage of due to a disruptive home life (Thurow, 1977). These viewpoints on the relationship between poverty and education show that many different stances can be taken when discussing the attainment gap, however all of them end with pupils from lower income household struggling to change their lifestyle after school, which is what the Scottish government needs to amend.

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