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Preparation of fish
Sea bass (underutilized fish) procured from the Ukkadam fish market were used in this study. It was thoroughly washed with potable water after removing scales, viscera and bones. The fish fillet was ground in a pulverizer and was then mixed with rice flour.
Preparation of rice-fish flour
The ingredients viz., fish paste, rice flour, water and salt were used for the preparation. The fish paste, rice flour and salt were mixed properly, adjusted to a desired moisture content by adding water. The levels of fish content and feed moisture content were 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% (wb) respectively. The flour then placed in a close vessel at room temperature for 2 hours to equilibrate before extrusion. The mixtures were then sieved using 0.5 mm mesh screen.
Extrusion studies were conducted with a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (Model BTPL-1, Basic Technology Pvt. Ltd. India). The extruder screw and plycutter were driven by 5 hp motor and a variable speed DC motor respectively. The barrel sections viz., feed zone, compression zone and metering zone was fitted with a gasket to prevent the heat transfer from one section to another. Temperature inside the barrel was controlled with temperature controllers. The barrel temperatures considered in this study were 100°C and 110°C. The extrudate were packed in polypropylene pouches and stored for further analysis.
Physical properties of the Extrudates
Expansion Ratio (ER)
The expansion ratio was calculated as the cross sectional diameter of the extrudate divided by the diameter of the die opening (Ding et al, 2005). The diameter of the extrudates was measured using a vernier caliper Expansion ratio was calculated from ten randomly selected samples and the average value was taken. The expansion ratio was calculated as given below.
Expansion Ratio = D2/d2
Where, D- diameter of the extrudate, d-diameter of the extruder die.
Bulk Density (BD)
Bulk density of the material is the ratio of mass and the volume it occupy. The weight per unit length of extrudate was measured using an electronic balance. The diameter and length of the extrudates were measured using vernier caliper. Bulk density of 10 samples were calculated and the average value was taken.
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"Optimization of Extrusion Cooking Process for Rice-Fish Extrudates with an Underutilized Fish Meal." 123HelpMe.com. 22 Apr 2019
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Bulk Density = weight/volume
= (π/4) D2 L
L = total length of the extrudate (mm)
D = average diameter of the extrudate (mm) (Giri et al,2000)
Functional properties of extrudates
The water absorption (WAI) and water solubility indices (WSI) of the fish-rice flour extrudates were determined according to the method of Anderson and others (1969). Powdered sample (2.5 g) was suspended in 30 mL of distilled water in a 50 mL pre-weighed centrifuge tube by vortexing. The tubes were placed in a 30°C water bath and intermittently stirred for 30min. The suspension was centrifuged for 10 min at 3000 × g and the supernatant was decanted into a pre-weighed 50 mL beaker. The weight of the wet sediment was used to calculate the water absorption index using the following
WAI (g gel/g dry sample) = weight of the wet sediment (g)/initial weight of the dry starch(g)
The supernatant was dried at 95 ◦C to constant weight and the weight of the dried solids was used to determine theWSI.
WSI (%) = weight of the solids recovered by evaporating the supernatant (g)×100/initialweight of the dry starch (g)
Textural properties were evaluated using a food texture analyzer (TAHDi, Stable Microsystems, England). cylindrical probe of 5-mm dia (SMS P/5) was used. The experiment conditions of textural analyzer are as follows
Load cell : 5 kg
Test Mode : Measure force in compression
Test option : Return to start
Pre test Speed : 2 mm / s
Test Speed : 0.1 mm / s
Post test Speed : 2 mm / s
Distance : 5 mm
Test probe : P 4
The area and peak force under the force–deformation curve was represented as toughness and hardness respectively.
Experimental design and data analysis
The independent variables in the present study were process parameters viz. barrel temperature (1000C, 1100C), moisture content of feed (10%, 15%, 20%, 30% (wb)) and fish content of feed (10%, 15%, 20%, 30% (wb)). A full factorial design has been developed with three replications using Minitab. The observed data were analyzed using ANOVA and correlation studies were carried out.
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