While Maslow’s Human Motivation Theory has been highly influential in motivating individuals in a variety of settings, several other theorists have increased understanding of human motivation as it relates to behavior and performance, especially in the workplace. Theories proposed by Maslow, Herzberg, Alderfer and McClelland have been adopted in a variety of settings to help employers better understand the needs and motivators that drive performance. While there are similarities in how human needs and motivators are described, there are also significant distinctions between how needs are categorized and how these theories explain individual progression through and between them. The common element between them is that understanding individual needs and motivation can help improve individual performance and satisfaction in a variety of settings.
Maslow’s Human Motivation Theory
Maslow’s widely accepted theory of human motivation proposes that human needs can be arranged in a hierarchy, with the fulfillment of higher level, “growth” needs dependent on fulfillment of lower-level “deficiency” needs. In Maslow’s view, “every drive is related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other drives” (1943, p. 370). Maslow’s hierarchy is typically represented as a pyramid, with lower order needs at the bottom and higher order needs at the top. This reflects the relationship of each need to the others, with the most important category being the physiological needs at the base (Redmond, 2010). The basic level includes physiological needs such as oxygen, food, and sleep, as well as safety and security needs such as shelter, order, routine, and protection from anyt...
... middle of paper ...
...ncy needs) and his motivators represent a higher order (like Maslow’s social and self-actualization needs. A key distinction between Maslow’s theory and Herzberg’s Two Factor theory is that, while Maslow indicates that lower order needs (deficiencies) motivate individuals, Herzberg asserts that his Hygiene factors do not motivate, and when used by employers to achieve this goal, they can actually de-motivate. (Pardee, 1990). According to Maslow’s theory, satisfying lower order needs motivates individuals to achieve the next; Herzberg believes that meeting lower order needs simply reduces dissatisfaction. As with Maslow’s “deficiency” needs, Herzberg’s hygiene factors are easier to control and measure than the more subjective higher order needs, but with both theories, employers would focus their efforts on the higher order motivators improve employee performance.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Mentioned Tables Not Included Among various behavioral theories long generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs.... [tags: Papers Maslow Herzberg Essays Business]
1034 words (3 pages)
- ... The first rise of research that was looking at the motives that inspire people to volunteer started in 1970´s (Esmond & Dunlop 2004). Many researchers then indicated that altruism is the main motivator for volunteerism (Tapp & Spanier 1973, Howarth 1976) and this theory is still widely discussed in present days (Horton-Smith 1981, Burns, Reid, Toncar, Fawcett & Anderson 2006, Carpenter & Myers 2007). In 1978, Gidron came up with three different motives for volunteering: personal (self-fulfilment), social (creating interpersonal relations) and indirectly economic (gaining work experience).... [tags: inspiring people to volunteer]
935 words (2.7 pages)
- Motivation theories can be divided into two different categories: Content and Process theories. Content Theories study about “what” motivates people and it is concentrate in individual needs and goals (Theories of Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland). Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation, “how” motivation occurs (theories of Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke) Abraham Maslow introduced the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940, and his theory is still using widely until today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development.... [tags: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs]
1130 words (3.2 pages)
- Needs theories of motivation have been the subject of considerable criticism. Are needs theories of motivation relevant to contemporary management practice. Motivating employees successfully has always been an essential and arduous task for management bodies. As motivation is found to be unique in the case of each individual, managers must provide an extended range of techniques to keep their workers motivated. Consequently, it is essential that there is an understanding of the psychological processes involved in motivation.... [tags: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs]
1263 words (3.6 pages)
- Job satisfaction was an evaluative reaction to the organization. It may be a psychological contract between the worker and the demands of the workplace that was influenced by personal needs, values, and expectations (Bloom, 2010). “Job satisfaction was a measure of an employee’s “overall attitude towards his job, whether he likes or dislikes it” (Smith & Shield, p 190). Blau (1964) focused on the relationship between the organization and its employees. Social exchange theory assists employees form general insight about the mindset of the organization toward them from policies and procedures were endorsed by individuals of the organization (Whitener, 2001).... [tags: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation]
1662 words (4.7 pages)
- Inside an organization, people are expected to their best work. Best work is easier to achieve when there’s the help of motivation. Motivation is one of the important factors to create effective management inside an Organization (Wood et al., 2006). Every person inside a company is motivated by different kind of things. According to Dawson (1986 cited in Thompson & McHugh 2002) motivation is a behavior, which can drive someone to act towards their goal. A motivated person will perform at maximum capacity in their jobs.... [tags: leadership, motivation theories]
973 words (2.8 pages)
- The book I selected to review is entitled Leadership and Motivation: The fifty-fifty rule and the eight key principles of motivating others by author John Adair (2006). This book was first published in 1990 under titled “Understanding Motivation”. In this book, Adair explores in depth the subject of leadership and motivation. He concluded that leaders and managers must developed motivation skills and know how to motivate others to be successful. Knowing and understanding the theories of motivation is important, but the most important is how to apply them practically in their organization to become effective leaders.... [tags: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs]
735 words (2.1 pages)
- Introduction Motivation seeks to bring our the best in other people and that is the basis for effective motivation. Therefore, a motivational leader views people with value and aspires to draw out the optimum level of enthusiasm from team members. Motivational principles seek to develop people in order to reach their fullest potential and thus, when properly applied, motivation will create positive results within an organization. Furthermore, understanding the types and theories of motivation is essential to unleashing the power of motivation within an organization.... [tags: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs]
1051 words (3 pages)
- In recent years, how to improve employee motivation has become one of the most discussed topics in our daily social news. Working demands differ significantly around the world. People working in different kinds of industries obtain different rewards. Most of the time, the employee’s motivation depends on the local government policies and the customs of their society. This includes, for example, employee competitive salary, year-end bonuses and company stock dividends, paid annual leave, employee lunches and break times, paid social insurance and regular vocational skills training.... [tags: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs]
825 words (2.4 pages)
- Cherry, Kendra. (2013). Theories of Motivation: A closer look at some important theories of motivation. http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm The Incentive Theory of Motivation states that people do things, such as work because of the rewards that come with. For example, a child might help his grandmother clean in order to receive cookies. His motivation is the reward of the cookies. In the working world, people get rewarded by other rewards. Some of these rewards are salary, security, and health benefits.... [tags: Motivational Theories]
3360 words (9.6 pages)