2.1. Insect growth regulator IGR:
Bakr, et al. (1984) evaluated some IGR's Dimilin (25% WP), Bay Sir 8514 (6.5% EC), Altosid (10% EC) and RO-08-9801 (50% EC) against Culex pipiens. Results revealed that, all the tested compounds inhibit the moulting process of the third and fourth larval instars with different degrees of morphogenetic changes. The developmental events of pupae died by Dimilin are not completely out of larval exoskeletons and larval-pupal intermediate shows 4th instar larval exuvia attached to the thoracic and abdominal region. The developmental events of adults died as a result of Dimilin and Bay Sir 8514 treatment death occurred before exuviations, right after partial emergence, after incomplete emergence (where pupal exuvia remain attached to thorax and head region) or after incomplete emergence (where the main trunk exuviated but the rest of the adult body is retained within the pupal exuvia. Generally, the observed morphogenetic effects of the tested Insect Growth Regulators were characterized and varied relatively to the type of each compound. The results showed that the sensitivity of larvae to a given compound varied with age. It depends on the insect species and the compound used.
Estrada and Mulla (1986) investigated the efficacy of the IGRs-21149, an oxime [O-(2-(4-Phenoxyphenoxy) ethyl propionaldoxime], against 2nd and 4th instar larvae and pupae of An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis. The compounds produced an overall mortality or 95% inhibition of adult emergence at 0.0047, 0.0013 and 0.00041 mg/liter in the three species, respectively. The LC95 values for another IGRs-31183, a pyridine compound, [1-(4-Phenoxyphe...
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...emboonkeat (1987) reported that an aqueous neem seed kernel extract was less toxic than petroleum ether and alcohol extracts when tested against Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella. Addition of 0.1% piperonyl butoxide gave the best result especially with petroleum ether and alcohol extracts.
Karr and Coats (1988) evaluated the insecticidal properties of limonene against many insects. Limonene only was slightly toxic. When limonene applied with piperonyl butoxide, synergism was occurred. Limonene also had some repellent activity and fumigant action.
Songkittisuntorn (1989) evaluated the efficacy of neem oil extracted substances on the rice leafhopper. The repellent action of neem oil was found increase with increasing of oil concentration. Neem oil reduced the nymph populations. Adding 0.1% piperonyl butoxide as a synergist to neem oil increased mortality.
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